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Restless Legs Syndrome dramatically reduced by vitamin D, etc

RLS has been treated by Vitamin D, Magnesium and Iron

Vitamin D Life Summary

Unknown amount of vitamin D was given to 12 adults with Restless Legs Syndrome
RLS scores decreased dramatically from 26 down to 10
RLS Scoring is attached at the bottom on this page: 40 = worst to 0 = none
Vitamin D levels went from 9 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL (trial lasted until each patient got > 20 ng: 3-8 months)
Some received vitamin D orally, others by injection.
Dosing was 8,000 IU liquid vitamin D/week OR 200,000 IU injection/ month
 Download the PDF from Research Gate via Vitamin D Life

RLS in Vitamin D Life

People with RLS often benefit from Magnesium and/or Iron (see bottom of this page)
Vitamin D Life expects RLS might be eliminated with if higher vitamin D levels were achieved in combination with Magnesium/Iron
Cartoon from the web

RLS treated by weekly 50,000 IU of vitamin D - Feb 2020

The Effect of Vitamin D on Restless Legs Syndrome: Prospective Self-Controlled Case Study
Sleep Breath, 2020 Feb 20, DOI: 10.1007/s11325-019-01984-3
Mesude Tutuncu 1, Melih Tutuncu 2

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D on severity of restless legs syndrome in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS).

Methods: Patients with idiopathic RLS completed questionnaires including the International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLSS) and were evaluated for vitamin D deficiency. Patients with deficiency of vitamin D were treated with 50,000 units per week for 2 months. At the end of the 2 months, vitamin D levels were re-measured and disease severity was re-evaluated in patients who reached adequate vitamin D level. Subgroups of IRLSS questionnaire were also analyzed.

Results: Of 35 patients enrolled, 21 (60%) had vitamin D deficiency and received vitamin D therapy. In 2 patients, vitamin D levels did not rise to sufficient levels with supplementation and these 2 patients were excluded from analysis. The remaining 19 patients showed

  • vitamin D levels increased from 13.2 ± 4.0 to 42.8 ± 9.6 ng/mL while
  • IRLSS improved from 24.9 ± 5.1 to 21.1 ± 2.9 points (p <0.001).

Selected subscores of the IRLSS were also improved including

  • symptom severity (p <0.001),
  • impact on sleep (p <0.001),
  • symptom measures (p =0.002), and
  • disease impact measures (p <0.001).

There were trends toward improvement in subscores of frequency (p =0.11) and mood (p =0.051).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that vitamin D levels should be evaluated in patients with RLS and if vitamin D deficiency is revealed, consideration should be given to replacement therap

RLS 3 X more likely if < 20 ng/mL of Vitamin D (8X if a teacher) – March 2018

The Association Between Vitamin D Level and Restless Legs Syndrome: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.
J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Mar 30. pii: jc-17-00496.
Wali S, Alsafadi S, Abaalkhail B, Ramadan I, Abulhamail B, Kousa M, Alshamrani R, Faruqui H, Faruqui A, Alama M, Hamed M.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be related to abnormalities in central dopamine pathways. Vitamin D may play a role in the pathophysiology of RLS by modulating the dopaminergic system. The aim of our study is to examine the possible link between RLS and vitamin D deficiency.

METHODS: The total number of subjects enrolled was 201, including 78 patients with RLS based on the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria and 123 controls. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in both groups. RLS severity was assessed in all cases using the IRLSSG symptom severity rating scale.

RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with RLS (75.6%) and 52 controls (42.3%) had a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, P< .001. The odds ratio (OR) of the development of RLS was 4.24 for those with a vitamin D level < 50 nmol/L compared to those with a vitamin D level ≥ 50 nmol/L (P< .001, 95% confidence interval CI 2.3-7.9).
After adjusting for all other significant factors in the multivariate logistic model, vitamin D was significantly associated with RLS (OR 3.1, P< .002, 95% CI 1.51-6.38).
Moreover, a dark or black skin color (OR 3.4, P< .001, 95% CI 1.5-6.3) and working as a teacher (OR 8.8, P< .001, 95% CI 3.4-23.5) were also independently significantly associated with RLS.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified an association between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Consequently, vitamin D deficiency should be considered in the management of RLS. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the causality relationship between vitamin D level and RLS.
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RLS associated with many other Vitamin D Deficiency diseases - July 2017

Restless Legs Syndrome, the Pitfall: Hardly Diagnosed and Rarely Treated Neurological Disease
Vishal ChavdaVishal ChavdaSnehal S PatelSnehal S Patel
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Associated with many other Vitamin D Deficiency Diseases

Restless legs syndrome is a chronic progressive sleep associated sensory motor disorder which develops within the neurological disorders like Parkinsonism, Neuropathy pain and possible dementia. The global prevalence of restless legs syndrome is increasing day by day and research studies have been reported the essential need for research in specific diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Prevalence of Restless legs syndrome is more in Female and pregnant women than men in the almost whole world. In India and many other countries of Asia and throughout the world the term Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is still a questionnaire. It is reported many a time by the Physicians, Neurologists and Gynecologists as a mal-diagnosis of Restless legs syndrome in India and in others countries also. The exact pathophysiology of the RLS is still not clear, but some superficial assumptions regarding the progressions of disease and root of disease through the gene molecular concepts. Few Traditional Chinese medicine and allopathic medicine have been reported a successful treatment of RLS, but it is either symptomatic or depends on time management. Dopamine Agonist and opioids are possible symptomatic treatment for RLS, but no treatment is available if it has entered in a severe stage of RLS. Relations to the lower cerebral ferric and Dopamine levels are probably ....

Restless legs syndrome associated with (a few) major diseases -A systematic review and new concept - April 2016

Neurology 86 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000002542
Claudia Trenkwalder, Richard Allen, Birgit Högl, Walter Paulus, Juliane Winkelmann

Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease.

  • cardiovascular disease,
  • arterial hypertension,
  • diabetes,
  • migraine, and
  • Parkinson disease

the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible.

There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other.

RLS score dropped from 26 to 10 after Vitamin D levels were raised to just 25 nanograms - 2014

The effect of vitamin D supplements on the severity of restless legs syndrome
Sleep Breath. 2014 Aug 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-014-1049-y
Wali S1, Shukr A, Boudal A, Alsaiari A, Krayem A.
1Sleep Medicine and Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, sowali at kau.edu.sa.

Clinical observation hinted improved symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) after vitamin D supplements. Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the severity of RLS symptoms.
Twelve adult subjects diagnosed with primary RLS and vitamin D deficiency were recruited. Patients with secondary RLS were excluded from this study. The complete cell count; serum levels of ferritin, iron, glycated hemoglobin, and vitamin D3 (25 (OH) vitamin D); and renal and bone profiles of the patients were assayed. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l) were treated with vitamin D3 supplements (high oral dose or intramuscular injection). The severity scores of RLS were reassessed after the vitamin D3 level was corrected to >50 nmol/l and compared with those before the administration of the supplements.
The median pretreatment vitamin D level was 21.7 nmol/l (13.45-57.4), which improved to 61.8 nmol/l (42.58-95.9) (P = 0.002) with the treatment. The median RLS severity score improved significantly from 26 (15-35) at baseline to 10 (0-27) after correction of the vitamin D levels (P = 0.002).
This study indicates that vitamin D supplementation improves the severity of RLS symptoms and advocates that vitamin D deficiency is conceivably associated with RLS.

PMID: 25148866
Publisher wants $40 for the PDF
Sci-Hub.tw has a free copy - March 2018


  1. Ohayon MM, O'Hara R, Vitiello MV (2012) Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome: a synthesis of the literature. Sleep Med Rev 16:283–295 CrossRef
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  10. BaHammam A, Al-shahrani K, Al-zahrani S, Al-shammari A, Al-amri N, Sharif M (2011) The prevalence of restless legs syndrome in adult Saudis attending primary health care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 33(2):102–106 CrossRef
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  13. Zucconi M, Manconi M (2008) Sleep and quality of life in restless legs syndrome. In: Verster JC, Pandi-Perumal SR, Streiner D (eds) Sleep and quality of life in clinical medicine. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
  14. Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Clemens S, Giarolli L, Bottasini V, Ferini-Strambi L (2011) Preferential D2 or preferential D3 dopamine agonists in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 77(2):110–117 CrossRef
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  17. Abou-Raya S, Helmii M, Abou-Raya A (2009) Bone and mineral metabolism in older adults with Parkinson’s disease. Age Ageing 38(6):675–680 CrossRef
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Restless Legs Syndrome 5X more likely if vitamin D deficient - May 2014

Possible association between vitamin D deficiency and restless legs syndrome
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 May 21;10:953-8. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S63599. eCollection 2014.
Oran M1, Unsal C2, Albayrak Y2, Tulubas F3, Oguz K4, Avci O1, Turgut N4, Alp R4, Gurel A3.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing sleep disorder that occurs worldwide. Although there have been recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of RLS, the exact mechanism of the disease has not been well elucidated. An increased prevalence of neurologic and psychiatric diseases involving dopaminergic dysfunction in vitamin D-deficient patients led us to hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency might result in dopaminergic dysfunction and consequently, the development of RLS (in which dopaminergic dysfunction plays a pivotal role). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and RLS.

One hundred and fifty-five consecutive patients, 18-65 years of age, who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with musculoskeletal symptoms and who subsequently underwent neurological and electromyography (EMG) examination by the same senior neurologist, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a vitamin D metabolite used as a measure of vitamin D status) level: 36 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL comprised the normal vitamin D group, and 119 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL comprised the vitamin D deficiency group. The two groups were compared for the presence of RLS and associated factors.

The two groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex, mean body mass index (BMI), and serum levels of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ferritin. The presence of RLS was significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group (χ (2)=12.87, P<0.001). Regression analysis showed vitamin D deficiency and serum 25(OH)D level to be significantly associated with the presence of RLS (odds ratio [OR] 5.085, P<0.001 and OR 1.047, P=0.006, respectively).

The present study demonstrated a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Given the dopaminergic effects of vitamin D, 25(OH)D depletion may lead to dopaminergic dysfunction and may have a place in the etiology of RLS. Prospective vitamin D treatment studies are needed to confirm this relationship and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D as a treatment for RLS patients.

PMID: 24899811
 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

See also RLS WikiPedia Aug 2014 (nothing about vitamin D)

  • Restless legs syndrome (RLS) also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED)[1] or Wittmaack-Ekbom syndrome, is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations.[2] It most commonly affects the legs, but can affect the arms, torso, head, and even phantom limbs.[3] Moving the affected body part modulates the sensations, providing temporary relief.
  • RLS sensations range from pain or an aching in the muscles, to "an itch you can't scratch", an unpleasant "tickle that won't stop", or even a "crawling" feeling. The sensations typically begin or intensify during quiet wakefulness, such as when relaxing, reading, studying, or trying to sleep.[4] Additionally, most individuals with RLS suffer from periodic limb movement disorder (limbs jerking during sleep), which is an objective physiologic marker of the disorder and is associated with sleep disruption.[5] It can be caused by low iron levels.[6]
  • RLS affects an estimated 2.5 to 15% of the American population .[6][60] A minority (around 2.7% of the population) experience daily or severe symptoms.

Magnesium reduced RLS - 1998

Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study.
Sleep. 1998 Aug 1;21(5):501-5.
Hornyak M1, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, Berger M, Riemann D.

Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), with or without symptoms of a restless legs syndrome (RLS), may cause sleep disturbances. The pharmacologic treatments of choice are dopaminergic drugs. Their use, however, may be limited due to tolerance development or rebound phenomena. Anecdotal observations have shown that oral magnesium therapy may ameliorate symptoms in patients with moderate RLS. We report on an open clinical and polysomnographic study in 10 patients (mean age 57 +/- 9 years; 6 men, 4 women) suffering from insomnia related to PLMS (n = 4) or mild-to-moderate RLS (n = 6). Magnesium was administered orally at a dose of 12.4 mmol in the evening over a period of 4-6 weeks. Following magnesium treatment, PLMS associated with arousals (PLMS-A) decreased significantly (17 +/- 7 vs 7 +/- 7 events per hour of total sleep time, p < 0.05). PLMS without arousal were also moderately reduced (PLMS per hour of total sleep time 33 +/- 16 vs 21 +/- 23, p = 0.07). Sleep efficiency improved from 75 +/- 12% to 85 +/- 8% (p < 0.01).
In the group of patients estimating their sleep and/or symptoms of RLS as improved after therapy (n = 7), the effects of magnesium on PLMS and PLMS-A were even more pronounced. Our study indicates that magnesium treatment may be a useful alternative therapy in patients with mild or moderate RLS-or PLMS-related insomnia. Further investigations regarding the role of magnesium in the pathophysiology of RLS and placebo-controlled studies need to be performed.

PMID: 9703590
 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

See also web - RLS and Vitamin D

See also web - RLS and Magnesium

See also Vitamin D Life - Magnesium

See also web - RLS and Iron

See also Vitamin D Life - Iron

RLS triggers - Oct 2018

RLS triggers, RLS Foundation
Note: Smoking decreases Vitamin D, Caffine decreases Magnesium absorption

RLS not treated by weekly 50,000 IU of vitamin D, but was treated by placebo - RCT Nov 2018

Efficacy of vitamin D replacement therapy in restless legs syndrome: a randomized control trial.
Sleep Breath. 2018 Nov 14. doi: 10.1007/s11325-018-1751-2.
Strangely, RLS decreased in placebo group but NOT in the Vitamin D group
 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

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Restless Legs Syndrome dramatically reduced by vitamin D, etc        
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14299 RLS RG.pdf admin 12 Sep, 2020 07:25 543.97 Kb 71
13664 RLS sci-hub.pdf PDF 2020 admin 23 Mar, 2020 00:06 311.13 Kb 233
13243 RLS associations 2017.jpg admin 28 Dec, 2019 15:46 38.26 Kb 1270
13242 RLS 2017.jpg admin 28 Dec, 2019 15:45 117.36 Kb 1233
13241 RLS July 2017.pdf admin 28 Dec, 2019 15:44 3.40 Mb 399
13004 RLS Wali.pdf admin 19 Nov, 2019 14:00 790.34 Kb 352
12559 RLS triggers.jpg admin 29 Aug, 2019 23:59 71.30 Kb 10778
7138 RLS Magnesium.jpg admin 02 Oct, 2016 18:07 15.14 Kb 6025
7137 RLS Magnesium 1998.pdf PDF admin 02 Oct, 2016 18:07 126.63 Kb 1275
4441 FixRestlessLegsEbook.pdf admin 01 Oct, 2014 22:37 677.71 Kb 165757
4326 RLS - May 2014.pdf PDF 2014 admin 28 Aug, 2014 23:34 213.91 Kb 2163
4320 RLS severity scoring.pdf PDF admin 26 Aug, 2014 12:28 117.98 Kb 3144
4319 RLS.gif admin 26 Aug, 2014 12:27 22.51 Kb 17182
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