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Overview Magnesium and vitamin D

Quick summary: you want 100-400 milligrams of Mg (of the element, not the compound)
Magnesium is essential for you to get the benefits of Vitamin D
Vitamin D appears to consume Magnesium in at least two ways
  1) Increased Vitamin D builds bones, which consumes Magnesium
  2) Vitamin D metabolism uses Magnesium in 8 places
Having 400+mg of Mg as a single dose causes a laxative effect in many people.
Taking the dose two times per day virtually eliminates the laxative effect.
   Just as you do not consume all of your water or food for the day at one time,
   you should not consume all of your Magnesium for the day at one time
    Excessive food, water, Magnesium, etc. is too hard on the gut.
Controversy as to which form of Magnesium is best

  • Liquid form: Magnesium Chloride has good bioavailability and low laxative effect.
    Can also be used topically on sore muscles
  • Pill form: Magnesium Citrate seemis pretty good
    Avoid Magnesium Oxide - consensus = very low bio-availability (not much better than placebo)
    Be careful that the suplement does not contain Calcium (most people need to reduce Ca intake)
  • Vitamin D Cofactors in a nutshell has a quick overview of Magnesium
  • Vitamin D and Magnesium category listing has 259 items along with related searches

Perspective of the importance of Vit D and co-factors to health
Importance to Health VDW10426

Table of contents


not much difference in bioavailability
from 2005 study

Magnesium 101

http://gotmag.org/magnesium-deficiency-101/ has following table of Sept 2014
Low magnesium and worse health problems

Mild Daily Challenge Greater Daily Challenge Severe Daily Challenge Life Threatening Challenge
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Fatigue Anxiety & panic attacks Arteriosclerosis Alcoholism
Constipation Arthritis Blood clots ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
Dizziness (vertigo) Asthma Bowel disease Alzheimers
(excessive menstrual pain)
Attention Deficit Disorder Calcified mitral valve
(mitral valve prolapse)
Cancer (breast, colon, prostate)
Facial twitches Backache, upper back: excess cortisol CFS/ME
(Chronic Fatigue Syndrome /
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis)
Cardiac afibrillation
Food cravings
(especially sugar, caffeine, simple carbs)
Backache, lower back: emotional Celiac disease Congestive heart failure
Headaches Cystitis Cerebral palsy Eclampsia
Heart palpitations Ear infections Chronic kidney disease Emphysema (COPD)
Hiccups Gluten sensitivity Concussion Myocardial infarction
Hyperglycemia Hyperlipidemia
(high cholesterol, triglycerides)
Depression Obesity
Hypoglycemia Hypertension Diabetes Parkinson’s disease
Irritability Insomnia Epilepsy/seizures Renal failure
Loss of appetite Insulin resistance
Endothelial dysfunction
(dysfunction of lining of blood vessels)
Mood swings Migraines Failure to thrive Starvation
Muscle cramps, spasms Multiple pregnancies
(exacerbates Magnesium deficiency)
Heart arrhythmias Stroke
Nausea Nerve problems Hormonal imbalance Sudden cardiac death
Nervousness Obesity Hyperparathyroid Ventricular fibrillation
Poor memory / concentration Osteopenia (precursor to osteoporosis) Hypothyroid
(exacerbates Magnesium deficiency)
PMS Kidney disease
Raynaud’s syndrome Poor concentration Liver disease
Weakness Pre-diabetes; insulin resistance Metabolic Syndrome
Sinusitis Miscarriage
TMJ disorder Mitral valve prolapse
(Calcified mitral valve)
Weight gain
(especially on waist)
Multiple sclerosis
Obesity, severe

They also have a free booklet on Mg concerns which you can download

What's The RIGHT Magnesium Dosage For Optimal Health? by Kerri Knox at Easy Immune System Health

  • Type as well as the amount - in forms of tablet, gel, bath flakes, etc. as well as time release
  • Mentions Angstrom Magnesium - which apparently does not cause bowel problems and can be taken sublingually
    • has a very strong taste - probably need to mask it in fruit juice. Apparently also known as ionic magnesium
    • CLICK HERE for suppliers of Angstrom Magnesium via Google Shopping
  • Mentions an expensive ($39 for 8 ounce) transdermal Magnesium Gel which can be applied to the skin
  • See also her page on Magnesium on Vitamin D Life

7 Reasons to Get More Magnesium - GreenMedInfo May 2018

Full text

  • "Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in your body"
  • "The human genome project reveals that 3,751 human proteins have binding sites for magnesium."
  • "...this one essential mineral activates over 350 biochemical processes in the body"

1. Prevent Migraines.
2. Lower Heart Disease Mortality
3. Manage Diabetes
4. Relieve Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
5. Lower Risk of Colon Cancer
6. Build Strong Bones
7. Reduce Signs of Metabolic Syndrome

  • Note by Vitamin D Life - ALL 7 of the listed benefits of increased Magnesium also are benefits of increased Vitamin D
    There is a lot of synergy between Magnesium and Vitamin D - see Venn diagram elsewhere on this page

Great summary by "Ms Magnesium" (Dr. C Dean) March 2015

Magnesium: THE Ultimate Guide (Dr. Carolyn Dean)
Appears to summarize and link to all of her information - from books, papers, YouTube videos, and podcasts.
 Also available on Vitamin D Life in case it gets removed from the above link
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Decrease in Magnesium during the past century

Magnesium decline
Image is from this great Overview of Magneium Aug 2012
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Consumer Labs Review of Magnesium - as little as 2 cents per 200 mg of Mg

The cost to get an equivalent amount of magnesium ranged from just 2 cents to over $1.30!
But quality and cost are not the only issues with magnesium: Some forms are better absorbed than others.

Consumer Labs has good reviews of many supplements: including Vitamin D, Vitamin K2, Calcium
Describes the benefits, warnings, and has extensive analysis of 37 products
They also believe that ReMag is just Magnesium Chloride.

Reasons for Magnesium Deficiency include

  • Use of chemical fertilizers- which lack Magnesium
  • Refining wheat/rice - remove 80+%
  • Refining sugar - vs brown sugar which has 30 mg of Magnesium per 100 gram
  • Boiling vegetables - might lose 50%
  • Gut absorption problems|2012].
  • Magnesium is removed from most city and bottled waters (as well as water softeners and reverse osmosis)
  • Calcium supplements - a probable Magnesium antagonist
  • Fluoridation might bind Magnesium in the body
  • Protein Pump Inhibitors (PPI, GERD) block Magnesium from being absorbed

Reasons for Magnesium Deficiency - from Metabolics.com

Reasons for Magnesium Deficiency - Metabolics.com

  • The use of herbicides and pesticides that kill off worms and bacteria in the soil.
    This is taken up by plants in preference to Calcium and Magnesium.
  • Soil erosion as Magnesium is leached out by heavy rain.
  • Acid rain (as occurs in air pollution) contains Nitric Acid.
    In the soil Nitric Acid reacts with Calcium and Magnesium to neutralise excess nitric acid.
    Eventually Calcium and Magnesium become depleted and the nitric acid reacts with Aluminium oxide in the soil.
    A reactive Aluminium builds up replacing Calcium and Magnesium in the plant.
    Calcium is needed for cell wall strength and Magnesium for chlorophyll for photosynthesis. So plants may grow taller and faster but are weak and lack chlorophyll.
  • Food processing decreases Magnesium.
    It is lost in grains during milling and making of white flour. It is also lost from vegetables when they are boiled.
  • Fluoride in water and toothpastes binds to Magnesium making it unavailable to the body.
    Fluoride is insoluble and replaces Magnesium in bone and cartilage.
  • Stress. Increased stress results in decreased stomach acid and decreased hydrochloric acid in the stomach results in decreased absorption of Magnesium.
    Commonly consumed antacids neutralise Hydrochloric acid, decreasing Magnesium absorption.
  • Magnesium absorption is altered by an unhealthy intestine for example;
    IBS, leaky gut, gluten and casein sensitivities, funguses & parasites, vitamin D deficiency and the formation of Magnesium soaps in the stools as Magnesium binds to unabsorbed fats.
  • Some foods can block the absorption of Magnesium.
    High protein diets can decrease Magnesium absorption.
    Tannins in tea bind and remove minerals including Magnesium.
    Oxalic acid in rhubarb, spinach and chard and phytic acid in cereals and soy also block absorption of Magnesium.
  • Junk foods, particularly sugary foods all use up extra Magnesium.
  • Saturated and trans fats alter cell wall integrity, making it more rigid which affects receptor site function and prevents nutrients from getting into or out of the cell.
  • Drugs - some drugs eliminate Magnesium. Antacids, antibiotics and diuretics all cause Magnesium depletion.
    Large consumption of caffeine and alcohol cause depletion with their diuretic effect.
  • Hypokalaemia (low potassium levels) can increase urinary Magnesium loss.
  • Body size - the larger the body, the larger the Magnesium pool, then the lower the absorption from any source.

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Magnesium and Vitamin D - similarities and differences


  • Widespread deficiency of both is due primarily to a single cause during the past century
  • Little toxicity
  • One needs the other to work properly: being deficient in one can cause problems with the other
  • Increasing either decreases the rates of many of the same diseases
  • Both have strong interactions with Calcium and Vitamin K2


  • Magnesium has no long term storage in the body (not in fat) like Vitamin D does
  • Very noticeable reaction if take too much Magnesium, but not vitamin D
  • Body can only absorb so much Magnesium per 6 hours – no limit with vitamin D
  • There are a variety of magnesium compounds – with different bioavailability and reactions

CLICK HERE for diseases which can be prevented/treated by Magnesium, Vitamin D, or BOTH

Magnesium and Vitamin D are synergistic, that is, increasing one helps the other.(Oct 2011 table)

Magnesium not Magnesium
Vitamin D Magnesium or Vitamin D
Aging, Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease;
Asthma, Attention Deficit Disorder; Autism, Cancer, Cerebrovascular,
Chronic Fatigue, Diabetes, Hearing Loss, Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Atherosclerosis,
Cardiovascular Disease, HIV, AIDS; Hypertension; Kidney Stones,
Migraine Headache, Multiple Sclerosis, Obesity, Osteoporosis; Peripheral vascular disease;
Pregnancy-related problems,Rheumatoid Arthritis; Sports-related problems,
Vitamin D only
Acne, Allergy, Autoimmune, Bone, Breathing,
Celiac, Cognition, Colds and Flu, Cystic Fibrosis,
Dental, Fertility, Hyperparathyroid, Immunity, Kidney,
Liver, Lupus, Osteoarthritis, Pain - chronic, Parkinson,
Psoriasis, Rickets, Strokes, Sarcoidosis, Thyroid, Parathyroid,
Tuberculosis, Vision, Hair, Skin, Sports
Not Vitamin D Magnesium only
Aggressive Behavior, Alcoholism, Arrhythmia, Cerebral Palsy,
Chemical Sensitivity, Cluster Headaches; Cocaine-related Stroke; Constipation,
Cramps, Fluoride Toxicity; Head Injuries, Central Nervous System Injuries,
Magnesium Deficiency; Menopause, Mitral Valve Prolapse,
Nystagmus, Psychiatric Disorders; Repetitive Strain Injury, Sickle Cell Disease, SIDS,
Stress, Stuttering, Tetanus; Tinnitis, Sound Sensitivity; TMJ; Toxic Shock; Violence

Vitamin D and Magnesium are similar Life Extension Mag - Dec 2016

Both Vitamin D and Magnesium
Extremely low cost supplement
Recent steep decline
Some of decline is due to changes in food production
skim milk, fertilizer, indoor animals, water filtration, roundup
Large % of world human population is now deficient
Forms: Oral, topical, Injection,
Various Cancers
Various diseases increased as the nutrient decreases
Bones, Cardio, Diabetes, Obesity, harden arteries
Provides both prevention and treatment
Calcium should be decreased
Tests are expensive and can be misleading
Limited by poor kidney, poor gut
Seniors have less
Needed by most parts of the body
Influences many genes/enzymes
Many proofs and positive meta-analyses
Doctors not aware, but vets are aware
Many forms and types available
Dose size varies with weight
Drugs reduce Magnesium and Vitamin D
Thousands of Binding sites for both
Just Vitamin D
Can start quickly - Loading dose
Skin color is important
Air conditioning, staying indoors reduces vitamin D
Decreased by antibiotics
Just Magnesium
Need to start slowly
Bioavailability varies widely between types of Magnesium
Very noticeable reaction if take too much Magnesium,

Solving Obesity – Magnesium (about 4 mg/pound of body weight)

17 Sep 2010 Vitamin D Deficiency Survivor

Taking one substance will not make you well either nutrient or pharmaceutical. Having a complete balanced nutritional diet will go a long way to protect you against the many intrusions to health. Environmental factors that we deal with whether man made or natural occurrences can create serious disease issues regardless of how healthy you are and how well you maintain nutrition. In general if you consume a diet that is an abundance of vegetables, fruits, nuts, and enough protein and fats (please note grains in moderation) you will be among the healthiest. Not having enough of the nutrients that our bodies require will lead to disease states whether there are environmental factors or not.

In my many years of researching the essential nutrients, I have found that the balance of the nutrients is the necessity for health. These items work together in ways that are so complex that we most likely will never be able to completely define all the interactions. However, there are some essentials that we do not get with our present diets in the US. These are vitamin C, vitamin D, iodine, and magnesium. You can add potassium to this list if you do not eat enough leafy green vegetables.

Magnesium is extremely important in our biological reactions. There are more than 350 biological reactions that magnesium has been identified with. I believe that two of the most important are the control of cellular membrane potential and magnesium as the molecule of choice for our energy storage – ADP to ATP.

About twenty five percent of the energy that is used for our bodies is the balance of calcium and magnesium and another twenty five percent is for potassium and sodium balance. This leads directly to how important the minerals are for maintaining a healthy weight. These important ions maintain the body electrochemical functions. If we are deficient in any of these then the ‘body electric’ starts to short circuit. I know an unusual term to describe what is going on with biological health but yet very accurate.

The balance of these minerals is extremely important for the electrical function of the heart. The heart is made up of over sixty percent neural cells just like what is found in the brain. These cells function through a cascade of reversing potentials by a balance inside and outside various membranes of potassium, sodium, magnesium, and calcium. Magnesium deficiency is one of the leading causes of sudden heart failure in young healthy adults.

Magnesium can be used up at a significant rate when you become vitamin D replete. It is extremely important to be sure to get enough magnesium when increasing your vitamin D levels.

How much magnesium is ill defined but falls in a range of 2.5 to 4.5 mg per pound of body weight per day. The good thing about supplementing with magnesium is that you reach bowel tolerance before you reach a level that is too much for the body. Magnesium is an excellent laxative. Nuts and beans appear to be the richest in magnesium of anything that we consume. A quarter cup of almonds contains 99 mg of magnesium and 257 mg of potassium.

Magnesium web site:

owned and funded by Paul Mason (Mr. Mason summarized the WHO conference in the book: Magnesium Miracle)
For the science this excellent website shows the diseases and gives you an opportunity to review the many papers on magnesium: www.mgwater.com
Diseases = Aging; Aggressive Behavior; Alcoholism; Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Alzheimer's Disease; Arrhythmia; Asthma; Attention Deficit Disorder; Autism; Cancer; Cerebral Palsy; Cerebrovascular; Chemical Sensitivity; Chronic Fatigue; Cluster Headaches; Cocaine-related Stroke; Constipation; Cramps; Diabetes; Fluoride Toxicity; Head Injuries, Central Nervous System Injuries; Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Disease, etc.; HIV, AIDS; Hypertension; Kidney Stones; Magnesium Deficiency; Menopause; Migraine Headache; Mitral Valve Prolapse; Multiple Sclerosis; Nystagmus; Osteoporosis; Peripheral vascular disease; Pregnancy-related problems, Eclampsia; Premenstrual Syndrome, PMS; Psychiatric Disorders; Repetitive Strain Injury; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Sickle Cell Disease; SIDS; Sports-related problems; Stress; Stuttering; Tetanus; Tinnitis, Sound Sensitivity; TMJ; Toxic Shock; Violence

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History of Magnesium - a consistent 400 mg minimum RDA

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Upper Limit is for supplements only, and is less than the RDA

from : http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=75
In 1997, the National Academy of Sciences set a tolerable upper limit (UL) on intake of magnesium at 350 milligrams per day for individuals 9 years and older.
This limit was restricted, however, to magnesium obtained from dietary supplements, and no upper limit was set on intake of magnesium from food sources.
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Magnesium Requirements

There are many factors that will vary our magnesium needs.

  • The more stress you are under, the more magnesium you need.
  • The more you use your brain in thinking, the more magnesium you use.
  • The more active you are the more magnesium you use up.
  • The larger frame you are, they more magnesium you require.
  • Prescription drugs (and illegal drugs) and alcohol require extra magnesium
  • Your bones are 2:1 calcium/magnesium ratio while your brain is more like 2:1 Mg:Ca

clipped - - -
We also believe that 70-90% of the population is deficient in magnesium and has a lot of catching up to do (could take more than a year).
Once you have caught up you can go to a maintenance level.

We recommend 150% of the RDA because we believe that

  • Most people are deficient
  • That the RDA is on the low side
  • Most of the magnesium is going to calcium absorption and neutralizing an acidic diet
  • Consuming only the RDA levels will not leave enough to combat insomnia, heart palpitations, muscle aches and other symptoms

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NLM effectiveness ratings for MAGNESIUM (with no comment on vitamin D)

from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/998.html
The following is just a tiny amount of the information from the above link
Effective for...

  • Dyspepsia (heartburn or “sour stomach”) as an antacid. Various magnesium compounds are used. Magnesium hydroxide seems to work the fastest.
  • Preventing and treating magnesium deficiency, and certain conditions related to magnesium deficiency.
  • Use as a laxative for constipation or preparation of the bowel for surgical or diagnostic procedures.

Likely effective for...

  • Conditions that occur during pregnancy called pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.
  • A type of irregular heartbeat called torsades de pointes.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis).
  • Preventing type 2 diabetes in overweight, middle-aged women, when magnesium is obtained from foods.
  • Diseases of heart valves (mitral valve prolapse).
  • High cholesterol.
  • Chest pain (angina) due to artery disease.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Hearing loss in people exposed to loud noise.
  • Metabolic syndrome (a condition that increases risk for diabetes and heart disease).
  • Preventing stroke.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), when given by an injection (shot).
  • Fibromyalgia pain, when used with malic acid.

Possibly Effective when given intravenously (by IV) by a healthcare provider for...

  • Cluster headaches
  • Migraine headaches.
  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Asthma attacks.
  • Nerve pain caused by cancer.
  • Pain after a hysterectomy.
  • A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Helping to restart the heart.
  • Improving energy and endurance during athletic activity.
  • Cerebral palsy, when given in the vein of premature infants.
  • Heart attack.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Anxiety.
  • Restless leg syndrome.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • Pregnancy-related leg cramps.
  • Hayfever.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • Premature labor.
  • Other conditions.

Vitamin D Council / Cannell Newsletter July 2009: Magnesium and Vitamin D's Co-factors

Question to Dr. Cannell: Is it important to take magnesium with vitamin D? Judith, New York
Yes, it is important to have adequate magnesium intake and most Americans do not. A number of people have written about muscle cramps after they start sunbathing or taking Vitamin D. This is likely caused from the neuromuscular hyperexcitability of magnesium deficiency that is somehow unmasked by higher Vitamin D levels. Abbott LG, Rude RK. Clinical manifestations of magnesium deficiency. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1993;19(4–5):314–22.

The latest survey of magnesium (Mg) intakes of Americans (NHANES) indicates the majority of Americans have Mg intakes below the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) in all age and race groups tested. In fact, the daily intakes were: 70 mg/day less than recommended in Caucasian men; 130 mg/day less in African American men; 60 mg/day less in Caucasian women; and 120 mg/day less than recommended in African American women. (The RDA is 320 mg/day for women and 420 mg/day for men.) Also, one statistic—called the standard error of the mean—was quite low. For example, +/- 6 for Caucasian men, raising the possibility that the vast majority of Americans are Mg deficient.

Even more interesting were some of the top ten contributors for American Mg intake: coffee, 3.7% of intake; milk, 2.2%; beer, 1.8%; French fries, 1.1%. Not a word about Americans eating many seeds and nuts, the foods loaded with Mg. Dr. Earl Ford of the CDC, the lead author, concluded, "Because magnesium has many potential health benefits, increasing the dietary intake of magnesium in the U.S. population should be an important public health goal." Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2879–82.

Apparently, Mg is better absorbed from foods than from supplements and Mg absorption varies with the degree of Mg deficiency. Mg is at the heart of the chlorophyll molecule, which is why green vegetables are a good Mg source. Other good sources are nuts, seeds, whole grains, dried fruit, and some fish. The richest source by far on a per gram basis is dried seeds, like pumpkin, sunflower, and sesame seeds, containing between 340–535 mg per 100 gram serving. High Mg foods were probably staples of Paleolithic man. Magnesium. Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health.

Magnesium (Mg) is the forgotten mineral, an "orphan," as Professor Robert Heaney of Creighton University says. It is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body, for it is involved in more than 300 biochemical reactions. All the enzymes that metabolize Vitamin D require Mg. It is also required in each of the steps concerned with replication, transcription, and translation of genetic information, and thus it is also needed for the genetic mechanism of action of Vitamin D. Zofková I, Kancheva RL. The relationship between magnesium and calciotropic hormones. Magnes Res. 1995 Mar;8(1):77–84. Carpenter TO. Disturbances of vitamin D metabolism and action during clinical and experimental magnesium deficiency. Magnes Res. 1988 Dec;1(3–4):131–9.

Besides these two reviews, any scientist interested in Vitamin D and the immune system should read Interactions between magnesium and vitamin D: possible implications in the immune system.

Two interesting cases of Mg dependent Vitamin D-resistant rickets appeared in the Lancet in 1974. Two children, one age two and the other age five, presented with classic rickets. 600,000 IU of Vitamin D daily for ten days did not result in any improvement in six weeks—in either x-rays or alkaline phosphatase—and the doctors diagnosed Vitamin D-resistant rickets. Almost by accident, serum Mg levels were then obtained, which were low in both children. After the treatment with Mg, the rickets rapidly resolved. Reddy V, Sivakumar B. Magnesium-dependent vitamin-D-resistant rickets. Lancet. 1974 May 18;1(7864):963–5.

What does that mean? How can one treat rickets with Mg? Remember, these children took a total of 6 million units, that's a total of 6,000,000 IU of vitamin D over ten days (it was given as injections so we know the children actually took it). Thus, they had plenty of vitamin D but, in their cases, the vitamin D needed Mg to work.

In 1976, Dr. Ramon Medalle and colleagues at the Washington University School of Medicine described five patients with Mg deficiency and low blood calcium whose calcium blood levels would not return to normal after Vitamin D treatment, a condition known as Vitamin D resistance. However, serum calcium promptly returned to normal in all five patients after treatment with Mg, raising the possibility that such Vitamin D resistance may be caused from simple, but severe, Mg deficiency. Medalle R, Waterhouse C, Hahn TJ. Vitamin D resistance in magnesium deficiency. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Aug;29(8):854–8.

What is not known is how mild to moderate Mg deficiencies (like most Americans apparently have) affect Vitamin D metabolism. The safe thing to do is to eat green leafy vegetables and a handful of sunflower seeds every day (Trader Joe's sells a variety of seeds). If you can't, won't, or don't end up doing that, then take a Vitamin D supplement with added Mg.

In fact, there are now supplements on the market that contain all the co-factors vitamin D needs to work properly (including magnesium):

  • zinc (the base of the fingers of the Vitamin D Receptor each contains a zinc molecule),
  • Vitamin K2 (Vitamin K helps direct Vitamin D to calcify the proper organs and prevents calcification of improper organs),
  • boron (boron is involved in the rapid, non-genomic action of Vitamin D on the cell wall), and
  • a tiny amount of Vitamin A.

Again, the wisest thing to do is to eat raw green leafy vegetables and a handful of seeds every day as that combination contains the co-factors Vitamin D needs. Please note that this will help supply the body with the nutrients that vitamin D needs, but is not satisfactory to prevent or treat the deficiency of these nutrients in which so many Americans are deficient.

Hot Flashes and Magnesium

1 Health Fellow: Magnesium reduced Hot Flashes in Breast Cancer Survivors July 2010
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A recent pilot study was presented at this year’s annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The subject matter dealt with hot flashes that up 40% of breast cancer survivors experience. Specifically, researchers from Virginia Commonwealth University examined the applicability of magnesium supplements in this patient population. Over the course of 5 weeks, 29 breast cancer survivors who experienced at least 14 hot flashes per week were given 250 – 500 mg of magnesium oxide daily. The majority of the women (56%) found a >50% or greater reduction in their “hot flash score”.

The overall conclusion was that 76% of the female participants reported a >25% decline in hot flash frequency and severity.

The authors of this preliminary study stated that “Side effects and cost ($0.02/tablet) were minimal”. It’s also reassuring to know that a bigger, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is currently in the works that hopes to establish exactly how magnesium diminishes hot flashes.
2 Trial: Magnesium cut number of hot flashes by 41% for menopause women with Breast Cancer
3 Magnesium supplements for menopausal hot flashes. 2009
4 Magnesium & Menopause Carolyn Dean MD ND Oct 2012

See also Vitamin D Life

see wikipagehttp://www.vitad.org/tiki-index.php?page_id=1936

Mercola has many articles on Magnesium

Magnesium glycinateA chelated form of magnesium that tends to provide effective levels of absorption and bioavailability.
Magnesium oxideA non-chelated form of magnesium bound to an organic acid or fatty acid. Contains up to 60% elemental magnesium and has stool-softening properties.
Magnesium chloride/Magnesium lactateContains only about 12% elemental magnesium but tends to have better absorption capabilities than magnesium oxide which has 5 times the magnesium.
Magnesium sulfate/Magnesium hydroxideThese are typically used as laxatives. Milk of Magnesia is an example of this type of magnesium. Since magnesium hydroxide can have up to 42% elemental magnesium, caution is required here not to take too much.
Magnesium carbonateThis form of magnesium has antacid properties and can contain from 29 to 45% elemental magnesium.
Magnesium taurateThis contains a combination of magnesium and taurine (an amino acid) that together may provide a calming effect on the body and mind.
Magnesium citrateThis is a form of magnesium with citric acid which has laxative properties. This can contain up to 16% elemental magnesium.
Magnesium L-ThreonateThis newer, emerging type of magnesium supplement has shown great promise in absorption, as well as potential tissue and cell membrane penetration.

It is the fourth most abundant mineral in your body Exists in over 300 different bodily enzymes
Is found primarily in your bones (half of your total body magnesium), Plays a role in your body’s detoxification processes*
Aids your energy metabolism and protein synthesis*Helps guide a large number of physiological functions*
Is required by glutathione (the “master antioxidant”) for synthesis* Is especially valuable for supporting your brain health*

Search web for "Proton pump inhibitor" and Magnesium: 275,000 hits as of June 2016

Google Search for "Proton pump inhibitor" and Magnesium on the web

Vitamin D Life Low cost to get vitamin D cofactors - including Magnesium

Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations - 2001

Magnes Res. 2001 Dec;14(4):257-62.
Firoz M, Graber M.
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Northport, NY 11768, USA.

Magnesium deficiency is seen with some frequency in the outpatient setting and requires oral repletion or maintenance therapy. The purpose of this study was to measure the bioavailability of four commercially-available preparations of magnesium, and to test the claim that organic salts are more easily absorbed. Bioavailability was measured as the increment of urinary magnesium excretion in normal volunteers given approximately 21 mEq/day of the test preparations.
Results indicated relatively poor bioavailability of

  • magnesium oxide (fractional absorption 4 per cent) but
  • significantly higher and equivalent bioavailability of magnesium chloride, magnesium lactate and magnesium aspartate.

We conclude that there is relatively poor bioavailability of magnesium oxide,
but greater and equivalent bioavailability of magnesium chloride, lactate, and aspartate. Inorganic magnesium salts, depending on the preparation, may have bioavailability equivalent to organic magnesium salts.
PMID: 11794633

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Magnesium - 2001

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Magnesium After Adrninistration of Magnesium Salts to Humans


 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life.

A Vitamin D Life 1987 article on Magnesium included some recent reasons for deficiency

"Refining and cooking may diminish the Mg content very substantially (18).
The refining of whole wheat to patent flour results in a loss of 80-96% (18, 66) of the Mg content
and the polishing of rice may remove > 80%.
The refining of sugar removes almost all the Mg (18,67) and
boiling vegetables may cause a Mg loss of > 50% (18).
There are observations that the Mg intake of humans has declined very sharply during the past few decades (68).
This may be due to the refining and preparing of food but also to the use of fertilizers with no Mg (53)."

Citrate good, Oxide not better than placebo - RCT 2003

Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double‐blind study
Published data on the bioavailability of various Mg preparations is too fragmented and scanty to inform proper choice of Mg preparation for clinical studies. In this study, the relative bioavailability of three preparations of Mg (amino‐acid chelate, citrate and oxide) were compared at a daily dose of 300 mg of elemental Mg in 46 healthy individuals. The study was a randomised, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, parallel intervention, of 60 days duration. Urine, blood and saliva samples were taken at baseline, 24 h after the first Mg supplement was taken (acute‘ supplementation) and after 60 days of daily Mg consumption (chronic‘ supplementation). Results showed that supplementation of the organic forms of Mg (citrate and amino‐acid chelate) showed greater absorption (P ∓ 0.033) at 60 days than MgO, as assessed by the 24‐h urinary Mg excretion. Mg citrate led to the greatest mean serum Mg concentration compared with other treatments following both acute (P ∓ 0.026) and chronic (P ∓ 0.006) supplementation. Furthermore, although mean erythrocyte Mg concentration showed no differences among groups, chronic Mg citrate supplementation resulted in the greatest (P ∓ 0.027) mean salivary Mg concentration compared with all other treatments. Mg oxide supplementation resulted in no differences compared to placebo. We conclude that a daily supplementation with Mg citrate shows superior bioavailability after 60 days of treatment when compared with other treatments studied.

Mineral decrease from vegetables in the past century

Sums of averages of calcium, magnesium, and iron in cabbage, lettuce, tomatoes, and spinach.
copied from Healing Property of Minerals - Paul Bergner
- - - - - - - - - - -

Magnesium in the diet

2004 Journal of the American College of Nutrition released a study which compared nutrient content of crops at that time with 1950 levels.
Average decline in Magnesium across fruits and vegetables studied 21%
Spinach 10%; Corn 23; Carrots 35%; Collard Greens 84%
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

British Analysis of Mineral Content for Vegetables

from PDF which is attached at the bottom of this page

Note: column on the left = content circa 1960, on the right = content circa 1994
- - - - - - - - -

US Govt study of Mineral Content for a century did not change much

Seems to disagree with all of the other references
from PDF which is attached at the bottom of this page
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The Scientific Evidence of Mineral Deficiency in Food 

Many great references - such as 1940-2002 in UK Magnesium
Milk down 21%; Parmesan cheese down 70%
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

The Magnesium Miracle reviews on Amazon seem to provide good overview of the importance of the element

Clipped from Google inside book

ADHD strongly assocated with Magnesium deficiency

Minerals imbalances influence learning disorders Natural Health 365
84% of kids with ADHD had significantly lower levels of iron compared to only 18% of control group

My notes of the book Magnesium Miracle by C. Dean, 2007 – which need to be confirmed

Update Aug 2017 - 2nd edition of Magnesium Miracle book - 30% new material. $14

Paul Mason summarized the WHO 2006 conference on Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water as:
1) There is a consensus that most of the world is deficient
   Agreed that there are only 4 ways of increasing Magnesium and Calcium
2A) Have everyone on earth take pills – which has never been done before,
   unlikely on a global level. But practical on an individual level
2B) Advise everyone on earth to get better food.
   Again unlikely globally, but practical for individuals
2C) Add Calcium and Magnesium to tap water.
   Very wasteful as 99% of tap water is not used for drinking
   Calcium can also build up as scale
2D) Require bottlers to add optimal calcium and magnesium to bottled products
   (hoped that this would be done in 2008, but it looks like no action was taken)
    WHO 2009: mentions water softeners and reverse osmosis systems remove all Magnesium and Calcium. Also that reverse osmosis systems add Sodium.

Pg xvii Magnesium regulates more than 325 enzymes in the body and orchestrates electric current in the nerves (along with Calcium)

Pg xvii Dietary Magnesium had been 500 mg/day in 1900 and barely 200 mg in 1990

Pg xix has 21 diseases associated with Magnesium deficiency – some of which are also associated with Vitamin D deficiency (example: Asthma, Diabetes, Fatigue, Heart Disease, hypertension, kidney disease, back pain, fibromyalgia, Osteoporosis, and tooth decay). 68 Symptoms of Magnesium deficiency are listed in section: Who is Deficient

The Body is Electric. There is 10,000X as much Magnesium in the cell as Calcium. And Magnesium limits how much Calcium can get into a cell (which is the reason for many of the diseases associated with Magnesium deficiency – the problem is not having too little Magnesium, but getting too much Calcium into cells)
60-65% of Magnesium is in the bones Blood has only 1% of the Magnesium (vs 99% of the Calcium is in bones)

Dead Soil Potash which has been used for fertilizer since the 1930’s is more easily taken up by plants than magnesium or calcium. There typically is Magnesium in soils which have been used/abused for a long time. It also is leached out by rain water, especially from acid rains. If a soil is determined to be too acid lime is tyically added, which again reduces the Magnesium.

Processed Food Lacks Magnesium Refining flour 80% lost, Polishing rice 83% lost, Production of starch from corn 97% lost, Extraction of white sugar from molasses 99% lost

Fluoridated Water Banishes Magnesium Fluoride binds the magnesium, making it insoluble and it makes bones brittle.
Stomach Acid is Essential for Magnesium Absorption A big problem for people such as the elderly who are deficient in stomach acid.

Absorption of Dietary Magnesium Is Hindered A healthy body nicely sluffs off any excess magnesium. Our body was not evolved to store magnesium as it had always been readily available in foods. Problems with magnesium absorption include diseased intestines, low parathyroid hormone, amount of calcium, phosphorus, potassium (wonder about vitamin D), sodium, lactose, and iron. If take iron, take hours apart from when take magnesium.

Magnesium is blocked by certain foods High protein, spinach, chard, un-fermented soy, …
Drugs cause magnesium deficiency diuretics, bronchodilators, birth control pills, insulin, digitalis, insulin, tetracycline, Corticosteroids, Nicotine, cisplatin (cheomtherapy)

Vitamin and Mineral Interactions with Magnesium “Sufficient vitamin D is necessary for the ody to utilize magnesium” (wonder how much sufficient is)
Heart Attacks 7 clinical studies has shown that 5-10 grams of intravenous magnesium reduced the risk of death by 55% after acute heart attack.
PMS reduced with 400 mg of Magnesium. Recommend taking 50 mg of B6 to assist in magnesium absorption.
Chocolate craving “is a sure sign” of magnesium deficiency. Chocolate has the most magnesium of any food.
Magnesium is just as important as calcium to prevent and treat osteoporosis
Magnesium keeps calcium dissolved in the blood so it will not form kidney stones
Magnesium deficiency is common in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia sufferers
Magnesium deficiency may be an independent predictor of diabetes
Diabetics both need more magnesium and loose more than most people.
Magnesium acts as a natural statin
Magnesium reduces lactic acid, which causes post-exercise pain
Magnesium is lost during exercise
Magnesium deficiency may cause sudden cardiac death in healthy athletes
Magnesium and calcium deficiency may be a cause of growing pains in children
Magnesium deficiency can produce symptoms of anxiety or depression

Author takes about 7 pages to describe Magnesium tests. Apparently very little of the body’s Magnesium is in the blood serum, and it is tightly regulated – except that when under stress the body adds more Magnesium to the blood. It appears that tests for Magnesium which test the serum are misleading, and white and red blood cell tests are an OK indication of blood in the cells of the body, unless the body is under stress – such as an asthma attack. A better test is a EXATest – which measures the amount of Magnesium in the mouth. The best test is a “blood ionized magnesium test” which, at the time of the book, was available only to researchers
– – – – –

Concerning vitamin D and Magnesium interaction from Internet:

- - - - -
Magnesium Dosage 3-4.5 mg/lb of body weight (element) = 600-900 mg for a 200 lb person. Some researchers recommend 40% more for children and athletes.
Supplement - how much in 500 mg

CLICK HERE for a forum discussion of Magnesium bioavailablity

Magnesium Sulfate -> Elemental Mag = 10%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Chloride -> Elemental Mag = 12%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Oxide -> Elemental Mag = 60%, Bioavailability = 4%
Magnesium Carbonate -> Elemental Mag = 45%, Bioavailability = 30%
Magnesium Hydroxide -> Elemental Mag = 42%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Citrate -> Elemental Mag = 16%, Bioavailability = 90%
Magnesium Lactate _> Elemental Mag = 12%, Bioavailability = 99%
Magnesium Glycinate -> Elemental Mag = 18%, Bioavailability = 80%
Magnesium Malate -> Elemental Mag = 6.5%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Taurate -> Elemental Mag = 9%, Bioavailability = ?
__Another person on the same made the following calculation of elemental Mg
MgSO4 -> 20.19% (but did not consider that it has 7 waters of hydration", so it's really MgSO4.7H2O)
MgCl2 -> 25.53%
MgO -> 60.30%
MgCO3 -> 28.83%
Mg(OH)2 -> 41.68%
Mg cit. -> 16.16%
Mg lac. -> 12.01%
Mg mal.-> 15.54%
Pico-Ionic Magnesium Bioavailability (claimed)= 100% with no intestinal upset {Update Fall 2012}
4 ml per day, no laxative affect even if have IBS-diarrhea, Crohn’s or colitis, $30

Magnesium L-Threonate – perhaps more bioavailable – Jan 2012

Have not seen ANY human studies of L-Threonate as of Nov 2018 - all mouse studies

Magnesium compounds have similar bioavailibility - 2005

Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach
 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Reuters June 2011Magnesium Deficiency Reduces Effectiveness of Vitamin D in the Prevention of Disease

According to Magnesium Expert Dr. Carolyn Dean, MD, ND
The journal Magnesium Research published a number of studies with the following findings:

  • Magnesium is essential for the metabolism of vitamin D.
  • Magnesium influences the body's utilization of vitamin D by activating cellular enzyme activity.
    • A 32-page guide to the benefits of magnesium, along with magnesium deficiency symptoms, written by Dr. Dean, is available as a free download at http://www.nutritionalmagnesium.org.

Most people are Magnesium Deficient

from Most people not getting enough Vitamin D, Magnesium, and Vitamin E – Aug 2011
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Magnesium in water is associated with reduction in stroke

100 mg more Magnesium in water associated with 8 percent reduction in stroke – Feb 2012
Independent evidence shows that Vitamin D and Magnesium both reduce strokes.
Expect that they would do well together - perhaps more than 2X the benefit
- - - - - - -

Magnesium Chloride

Book updated Nov 2013 not on Amazon as of Sept 2014
10 new chapters since July 2011

Magnesium Chloride mentioned at Vitamin D Council

Perhaps good absorption directly through the skin

Magnesium online resource center

Magnesium in health • In a few words
Magnesium in biochemistry • a vital necessity, • magnesium’s effect, • magnesium and women, • magnesium and men, Magnesium in medicine. • Ocean Frost
Magnesium compounds • magnesium bromide, • magnesium carbonate, • magnesium chloride, • magnesium citrate, • magnesium hydroxide, • magnesium oxide, • magnesium phosphate, • magnesium sulphate
Magnesium in water • magnesium in drinking water, • magnesium in hard water
Magnesium in food • dietary requirements, • diets and diabetes, • health risks, • magnesium deficiency, • recommended amounts, • supplements
Articles • ageing, • aggressive behavior, • alcoholism, • arrhythmia, • asthma, • autism, • cancer, • cramps
• diabetes, • heart-related, • hypertension, • kidney-stones, • menopause, • migraine-headache, • osteoporosis
• sport-related, • stress, • tetanus, • toxic-shock, • violence
General conclusions

Magnesium Interactions

Magnesium mind map  at is.gd/VDMag
From Transdermal Magnesium (Ancient Minerals) Dec 2012

The only difference between chlorophyll and hemoglobin is that Magnesium is in the center instead of Iron

see  Overview of Magnesium http://is.gd/VDMag

Magnesium deficiency is associated with poor mental health

huge web page
Magnesium and Mental Health  see  is.gd/VDMag

Magnesium is one of the treatments for Restless Legs

Natural Ways to Eliminate Restless Leg Syndrome Symptoms & Enjoy Long Lasting Relief
By Leanne Purdie. Copyright 2013; Ebook is attached at the bottom of this page

European upper limit for Magnesium was based on diarrhea

PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

3,751 magnesium binding sites on human proteins GreenMedInfo Dec 2012

See also web

  • Learn More About How Important Magnesium Is 2005
    "For example, magnesium was first shown to be of value in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in 1935."
    " More than seventy years later, there are now numerous double-blind studies showing magnesium to be of benefit for many types of arrhythmias including
      atrial fibrillation, ventricular premature contractions, ventricular tachycardia, and severe ventricular arrhythmias"
    "The arrhythmia burden of the patient with CKD is high, with the single greatest contributor to mortality in end stage renal disease (ESRD) being sudden cardiac death (SCD)"
  • Magnesium – its role in CKD. Nefrologia, May 2013, full text online
    Magnesium for treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease
  • Arrhythmias Life Extension date unknown - perhaps 2011
    "Food, drugs, and medications. Coffee, tea, chocolate, red wine, or simply overeating may cause rapid heartbeats that may be frightening when felt but are rarely serious"
    "Both magnesium and potassium are intricately involved in the heart’s electrical stability (Cybulski J et al 2004); consequently, maintaining normal functional blood levels and ratios of each is important"
  • Is Magnesium Toxic? No! Dr. Carolyn Dean on contraindications (when to not take Magnesium) Dec 2012
    Kidney failure, Myasthenia gravis, Excessively slow heart rate, Bowel obstruction
  • Nutrional Magnesium Association Which has the following coverage


Chart shows 3 locations where low Magnesium decreases Vitamin D

Vitamin D reduced so low that Victorian age diseases are returning
Reductions in Vitamin D is.gd/VitDReductions

Magnesium may not be as available if have low stomach acid (seniors)

Magnesium may not be as available if have low stomach acid (seniors) has the following chart of stomach acid vs age

See also Calcitriol, not inactive vitamin D, associated with pain in seniors – Aug 2014
Low Magnesium ==> low Calcitriol (the Vitamin D which actually gets to the cells)

Infographic by Ontario Health


Magnesium test of your blood $49 (not cell test)

Magnesium Reduces Diabetes Risk by 53% Report on a 2013 study

Much more heart disease if Calcium/Magnesium ratio is too high

George Eby

Cost of food to get 400 mg Magnesium


Excellent review of Magnesium Supplementation and Benefits at Consumer Labs - updated June 2017

Unfortunately they do not sell their supplment reviews individually - must subscribe to all of them for $42/year
Price per 200 mg of Magnesium varied from $0.06 to $1.99 (not Mg Oxide -which is poorly adsorbed
They feel Chloride is the best form if take a lot of Magnesium
Note: I (founder of Vitamin D Life) make my own Magnesium Chloride liquid from crystals and hot water - approximately $0.04 per 200 mg

Reduce stress and anxiety with Magnesium - 100 page ebook June 2017

by Dr. Carol Dean (Ms Magnesium)
 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Notes on what needs to be changed here (May 2013)

Summarize Mg: Body knows how to get rid of too much at one time,

Many forms – vastly different amount get into body
important to 20+ health conditions – such as bone
Can also get Mg through skin: Epson Salt foot bath, MgCl in DMSO
Far less Mg in food in past 40 years
Many drugs and chemicals which also reduce Magnesium in body
Suspect also that need more Mg as have more Vitamin D
Increase Mg to at least 500, decrease Ca to <500 – perhaps zero
Magnesium Chloride – pill , liquid, cream
Pico Mg – apparently no side affects 48 of 300 mg for $30
vs 32 of 300 for $18 Mg Chloride
Mg vs Fe = Chlorophyll vs Hemoglobin
Mg/Heart analysis
More people are deficient?, many similar recent reasons,
Widespread health, Deficiency not associated with specific problem
Mag decreased: furt (see chart in Mag page), refined foods,
high fat diet, salt, less hard water, transdermal
Calcium supplementation, boiling veg, coffee, diuretics,
impaired absorption such as Crohn's disease, unhealthy kidney
diabetes, 30% to 60% of alcoholics, fluoridation?
magnesium absorb decreases and +renal excretion in seniors
Potash is more easily taken up by plants than mag or calcium.
Mg overdose – only if dialysis (Kidney not working)
Mg: Pico, attach PDF, 100% – nothing for laxative,
just 1/4 teaspoon twice a day – for 14 days
http://www.amazon.com/Invisible-Minerals-Magnesium-Pico-Ionic-ebook/dp/B009V2ZJZ4 $4.00
Pico: The Pico-Ionic form is 50,000 ppm and comes in 8oz. bottles at an average daily dosage of 250mg per 4mls (1 tsp = 5 ml)
http://www.amazon.com/Liquid-Ionic-Minerals-Magnesium-250mg/dp/B005PFK3YS/ref=pd_sbs_hpc_1 half price
Liguid Magnesium from Mother Earth Minerals is extremely dilluted and should be ignored
only 10 milligrams of Mg per teaspoon.
Candida may interfere with absorption of Magnesium in the gut
Comment from the web March 2015
If true. probabaly want to emphasize transdermal Magnesium
Need to investigate

% Magnesium element in supplements


Note: Water filters which use reverse osmosis eliminate all Magnesium and Iodine ions

Are You Getting Enough Magnesium? - AARP Feb 2018

Are You Getting Enough Magnesium?
"Roughly 70 to 80 percent of those older than 70 fail to meet their daily magnesium needs"


Web - Feb 2018
1. Anxiety
2. Asthma
3. Blood clots
4. Bowel disease
5. Calcium deficiency
6. Confusion
7. Constipation
8. Cystitis
9. Depression
10. Difficulty swallowing
11. Dizziness
12. Fatigue
13. Fertility/childbearing issues: Getting or staying pregnant, preeclampsia, preterm labor
14. High blood pressure
15. Heart issues
16. Hypertension
17. Hypoglycemia
18. Insomnia
19. Liver and kidney disease
20. Memory loss
21. Migraines
22. Muscle cramps
23. Nausea
24. Osteoporosis
25. Personality changes: often similar to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders
26. Potassium deficiency: may cause extreme thirst, fluid retention, and irritability
27. Raynaud’s syndrome: may cause cold fingers or toes, color changes in skin due to temperature changes, and numbness in extremities
28. Respiratory difficulties
29. Seizures
30. Tooth decay
31. Tremors
32. Type II diabetes

Pros and cons of Magnesium compounds - Jan 2017

12 Things You Need to Know About Magnesium Deficiency

1. Magnesium oxide (aka “magnesia”) and hydroxide
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Non-chelated forms of magnesium bound to an organic acid or fatty acid; poor absorption and bioavailability; 40-60% elemental magnesium
Uses & Effects: Stool-softening and antacid properties; should not be used long-term
Primary Target: Gut
Laxative Properties: High
2. Magnesium lactate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Combined with lactic acid, about 12% elemental magnesium, better absorption than magnesium oxide
Uses & Effects: Most often used for digestive issues
Primary Target: Gut
Laxative Properties: High
3. Magnesium citrate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Magnesium combined with citric acid; up to 16% elemental magnesium
Uses & Effects: Digestion; constipation, colon prepping for diagnostic procedures; better tolerated by some
Primary Target: General and gut
Laxative Properties: High
4. Magnesium carbonate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: 19-45% elemental magnesium
Uses & Effects: Antacid properties, indigestion, acid reflux
Primary Target: Gut
Laxative Properties: High
5. Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts, Milk of Magnesia)
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Varies
Uses & Effects: Oral form is not a safe source of dietary magnesium; transdermally (in a bath) has positive effects, especially muscles and nerves
Primary Target: Gut and General
Laxative Properties: High orallyl, Extremely low transdermally
6. Magnesium chloride oil
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: An oily magnesium salt in liquid form, harvested from the Dead Sea; comes as a transdermal gel, oil or spray
Uses & Effects: Good adjunct therapy to increase magnesium level beyond what can be achieved; may help muscle pain; useful for those who cannot tolerate oral forms
Primary Target: General
Laxative Properties: Extremely low
7. Magnesium chelate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Multiple chelated form bound to various amino acids; the kind found in foods naturally; highly absorbable
Uses & Effects: Effects vary depending on what chelates are used
Primary Target: General
Laxative Properties: Low
8. Magnesium malate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Chelated form of magnesium with malic acid
Uses & Effects: Muscle fatigue; increases energy production and ATP synthesis; supports digestion (take with meals); manages PMS and headaches, pain and fibromyalgia symptoms
Primary Target: Muscles
Laxative Properties: Low
9. Magnesium taurate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Chelated form magnesium with taurine with good absorption and bioavailability
Uses & Effects: Calming effect; supports healthy heart function, suppresses palpitations and arrhythmias; migraine prevention
Primary Target: Heart
Laxative Properties: Low
10. Magnesium orotate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Magnesium combined with orotic acid
Uses & Effects: Heart repair, DNA repair; enhances athletic performance
Primary Target: General
Laxative Properties: Moderate
11. Magnesium glycinate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Chelated form of magnesium with glycine, high absorption and bioavailability
Uses & Effects: Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment; stress; concentration; depression, irritability, anxiety, other mood issues; insomnia
Primary Target: Brain
Laxative Properties: Low
12. Magnesium L-Threonate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Newer form of magnesium; high absorption and bioavailability, only form known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (in rats as of 2018); excellent cell membrane penetration
Uses & Effects: Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment; stress; concentration; depression, irritability, anxiety, other mood issues; insomnia
Primary Target: Brain
Laxative Properties: Low

Extensive Overview of Magnesium at Pauling Institute - updated Nov 2018

Summary points (without hyperlinks)

  • Magnesium is an essential mineral and a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes. Magnesium is involved in many physiologic pathways, including energy production, nucleic acid and protein synthesis, ion transport, cell signaling, and also has structural functions. (More information)
  • Severe magnesium deficiency can impede vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. Certain individuals are more susceptible to magnesium deficiency, especially those with gastrointestinal or renal disorders, those suffering from chronic alcoholism, and older people. (More information)
  • Inadequate dietary intakes and/or low serum concentrations of magnesium have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preliminary studies have shown that magnesium improved insulin sensitivity in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Randomized controlled trials have also investigated the role of magnesium supplementation in the prevention of complications following stroke or heart surgery. (More information)
  • Magnesium sulfate is used in obstetric care for the prevention of seizures in pregnant women with preeclampsia or eclampsia. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials also support a role for magnesium in preventing brain damage in premature infants. (More information)
  • The use of magnesium supplementation is currently being explored in the management of various conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, asthma and pain. (More information)
  • About half of the US adult population may have insufficient magnesium intakes to support nutritional adequacy. Dietary sources rich in magnesium include green leafy vegetables, unrefined grains, legumes, beans, and nuts. (More information)
  • The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for supplemental magnesium is 350 mg/day. Excessive intake of supplemental magnesium can result in adverse effects, especially in individuals with impaired kidney functions. (More information)
  • Magnesium plays important roles in the structure and the function of the human body. The adult human body contains about 25 grams (g) of magnesium. About 50 to 60% of all the magnesium in the body is found in the skeleton and the remainder is found in soft tissue, primarily in muscle. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. Blood contains less than 1% of total body magnesium. Only the free, ionized form of magnesium (Mg2+) is physiologically active. Protein-bound and chelated magnesium serve to buffer the pool of free, ionized magnesium (1).

It appears that all forms of Magnesium cross the blood brain barrier

Magnesium Crosses the BBB Carole Dean March 2019 many references

Short url = http://is.gd/VDMag

Overview Magnesium and vitamin D        
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10902 Mg 2 week rats.jpg admin 24 Nov, 2018 19:14 117.52 Kb 13046
10901 magnesium bioavailability 2005.pdf admin 24 Nov, 2018 19:07 73.23 Kb 839
8125 magnesium-deficient-anxiety.pdf PDF 2017 admin 23 Jun, 2017 18:14 1.33 Mb 979
5160 Mg cost for 400 mg.jpg admin 12 Mar, 2015 21:37 41.62 Kb 64725
5159 Mg 54.jpg admin 12 Mar, 2015 21:36 55.76 Kb 14385
5121 Mg bioavailability 2003.jpg admin 04 Mar, 2015 16:38 44.62 Kb 63334
5117 Mg Dean March 2015.pdf PDF 2015 admin 04 Mar, 2015 11:40 3.98 Mb 7104
5112 Mg content.jpg admin 02 Mar, 2015 14:38 46.77 Kb 66775
4698 Bioavailability- of Mg.pdf PDF admin 08 Dec, 2014 01:46 1.89 Mb 5098
4697 Mg T1B.jpg admin 08 Dec, 2014 01:45 35.82 Kb 67847
4696 Mg T1A.jpg admin 08 Dec, 2014 01:44 36.25 Kb 69357
4691 CaMg ratio vs heart disease.jpg admin 07 Dec, 2014 19:17 44.92 Kb 68063
4440 Transdermal Mg book Nov 2013.jpg admin 01 Oct, 2014 22:16 24.71 Kb 70215
3894 Magnesium-Infographic.jpg admin 12 May, 2014 18:20 190.66 Kb 83163
3436 Euro Upper limit Magnesium 2001 - based on Diarrhea.pdf PDF admin 23 Dec, 2013 14:01 71.83 Kb 1965
3288 FixRestlessLegsEbook.pdf PDF - 2013 admin 17 Nov, 2013 16:36 677.71 Kb 4378
1359 Transdermal Magnesium.jpg admin 23 May, 2012 18:31 10.52 Kb 96771
1356 foodsupply1909-2000.pdf PDF admin 21 May, 2012 22:02 653.92 Kb 2302
1355 Magnesium in food supply.jpg admin 21 May, 2012 22:01 16.67 Kb 97258
1354 Historical Mineral Content.jpg admin 21 May, 2012 21:40 17.76 Kb 109737
1353 Historical Minearal content.pdf PDF admin 21 May, 2012 21:40 35.64 Kb 1736
585 Mineral decrease from vegetables.png admin 27 Jun, 2011 15:02 56.63 Kb 100900
287 Mag - research.gif Research admin 09 Nov, 2010 02:51 10.47 Kb 98341
286 Mag - news.gif news admin 09 Nov, 2010 02:51 12.25 Kb 98913
285 Mag - health.gif Health admin 09 Nov, 2010 02:50 8.04 Kb 98591
284 Mag - expert articles.gif Expert admin 09 Nov, 2010 02:49 13.66 Kb 98879
210 Magnesuim meracle pg 214.gif admin 04 Oct, 2010 16:20 19.32 Kb 100079
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