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Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D

Vitamin D before, during, and after pregnancy  =alternate name
The more vitamin D for mom, the more benefits for both of them

  • The benefits to mom start about 2,000 IU daily average (2000 IU costs less than $15 per year)
  • Substantial benefits proven for 4,000 IU taken during pregnancy (fewer complications, lower cost)
  • Best benefits at 6,000 IU - this much is also needed if breast feeding without supplementing the infant
  • Taking > 2,000 IU raises the cost, primarily due to cost of Cofactors.

Pregnancy category listing has 886 items along with many category combinations

Vitamin D during pregnancy

IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level CofactorsCalcium $*/month
200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10
400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20
2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1
4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
< 750 mg $3
6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
Should have
< 750 mg $4

$* assumes

  • You buy fairly |low cost vitamin D and Cofactors (more expensive if liquid and/or vegan )
  • Using a low cost size of vitamin D - such as 5,000 IU, as often as needed. (50,000 IU costs even less)
    Example: 5000 IU every other day if you only want an average of 2500 IU
  • Test vitamin D levels of only those moms who are at high risk for being vitamin D deficient
       $30 for a blood test about 6 weeks after starting vitamin D to check that high-risk mom is getting enough
Benefits which do not fit into the previous matrix

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D

Vit. D
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
click here for details

Ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby - take Vitamin D before conception

has the following
Start Vitamin D soon if pregnant VDW 9923
click on chart for details

60 Studies of Pregnancy AND Intervention in Vitamin D Life

This count and list are automatically updated

6 Studies of Pregnancy AND Loading Dose in Vitamin D Life

This count and list are automatically updated

Pregnancy - general

Vitamin D levels needed  at is.gd/neonate_vitD


Pregnancy problems vs Vitamin D level - GrassrootsHealth Feb 2015

Recharted by Vitamin D Life Feb 2017
Pregnancy problems reduced GRH 2015
Pregnancy GrassrootsHealth 2/15
All percentages reference a common reference level of 25.0 ng/ml as shown on the chart. %’s reflect the disease prevention % at the beginning and ending of available data.
Example: Gestational diabetes incidence is reduced by 11% when the serum level is 30.7 ng/ml vs the reference level of 25.0 ng/ml. There is a 33% reduction in incidence when the serum level is 41.9 ng/ml vs the reference level of 25.0 ng/ml.

  • (Preterm Birth (1): Wagner CL, et al. 17th Workshop on Vitamin D; 2014 June 17-20.
    Preterm Birth (2): Bodnar LM, et al. Obstetrics & Gynecology; 2015.
  • Hypertensive Pregnancy Disorders, Gestational Diabetes, and Bacterial Vaginosis: Wagner CL, et al. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:313-320.
  • Depression: Huang JY, et al. J Womens Health. 2014;23(7):588-95.
  • Impaired Muscle Strength: Kalliokoski P, et al. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13(237).
  • Postpartum Depression: Gur EB, et al. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014;179:110-6.
  • Small for Gestational Age: Gernand, AD, et al. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123(1):40-8.
  • Common Cold, Ear Infection, and Lung Inflammation: Shin YH, et al. Korean J Pediatr. 2013;56(10):439-445.
  • Asthma: Magnus MC, et al. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013;27(6).

Preterm and low-weight births


Increased pre-term birth if black or if high UV index (stay inside - away from the hot sun)

PubMed:  24618066 April 2014

IU for infants

Low Levels among mothers and infants

Chart from Grassroots Health May 2016
Grassroots Health May 2016

see wikipage: http://www.vitad.org/tiki-index.php?page_id=2563



20X more than US standard - Wagner April 2010 slide 31

Chart by Heaney,  downloaded from Grassroots April 2010 – video expected June
Fewer than 40% of infants got 400 IU of vitamin D, The amount recommended by American Academy of Pediatrics

A June 2010 study which includes the following graph, found that MANY children do not even get 200 IU

and NONE of the children got more than 480 IU
from Dietary Guidelines for Americans vitamin D - June 2010

Note: When infant stops drinking vitamin D fortified milk, be sure to supplement with vitamin D - as most fruit juice is not fortified.

Rickets/Battered Child/Weak bones

High risk of being vitamin D deficient during pregnancy

Potential high risk if : dark skin, twins, recent pregnancy, smoking, very far from equator, obese, excessive clothes,

BEFORE: Help getting pregnant - woman & man

Vitamin D increases the fertility of BOTH the woman.and the man
Each 1 ng increase in blood level of vitamin D increases clinical pregnancy by 6%
You may not have heard much about it since it has been patented
   see also Who said vitamin D could not be patented
Vitamin D has been used by zoos and vets for a long time to increase fertility

Decrease in C-sections as Vitamin D levels are increased

C-section 4X more likely if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – May 2012
Risk of Cesarean 2X higher if low vitamin D – April 2012
C-section 4X more likely when vitamin D less than 37 ng – many items
Search Vitamin D Life for cesarean 90 items as of Aug 2014

21 Depression and Pregnancy studies

See also Vitamin D Life

6400 IU of vitamin D got mothers to 50+ nanograms


Some Pregnancy complications if low vitamin D

From 3 to 55 X more likely to have these health problems if low Vitamin D
7 X more likely to have low birth weight infant
5 X more likely to get vaginosis during pregnancy
4 X more likely to have preeclampsia during pregnancy
4 X more likely to have C-section

Good review of prenatal Vitamins (more than just Vitamin D) - April 2024


  • "However, it’s important not to exceed the recommended daily intake during pregnancy, as higher doses of certain vitamins and minerals may be harmful to the fetus (e.g., iron, folic acid, zinc)"
  • "These may encompass vitamins vitamin B1, vitamin B2, B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, C, D, E, and K, along with folic acid, iodine, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, selenium, and sometimes additional components like omega-3."

See also web

  • Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System CDC
  • Clinical Trials for Pregnacy with vitamin D INTERVENTION 75 as of July 2017
  • Pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of vitamin D3 (70,000 IU) in pregnant and non-pregnant women Dec 2012
    PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
  • Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy: Is It Necessary? Medscape Sept 2013
    Nope maternal 25(OH)D levels in any trimester failed to significantly affect the bone-mineral content of offspring
    They fail to consider anything other than bone content at age 10!!
  • Google Sites on Vitamin D and pregnancy Oct 2013 included links to the following
    Vitamin D may be useful as immunotherapy in treatment of recurrent miscarriage
    Vitamin D reduces inflammation associated with miscarriage
    4000 IU Vitamin D daily lowers rates of infection, preterm labor and preterm birth
    Vitamin D required for fetal development; deficiency causes preeclampsia, gestational diabetes
    Vitamin D levels not associated with fertility or pregnancy outcome except late miscarriage
    Plasma vitamin D concentrations may affect pregnancy outcomes.
    Low vitamin D leads to failed IVF attempts
    Having sufficient vitamin D levels is associated with 4 times higher success rate in IVF
    93% of infertile women were low in vitamin D
    High or low vitamin D associated with lower sperm count, motility and morphology
    High vitamin D levels associated with higher sperm motility and morphology
    Extra vitamin D increases litter size in pigs and has a trend toward higher pregnancy rates
    Vitamin D deficiency leads to fewer offspring in mice
    Vitamin D deficiency impairs egg production, elevates LH and FSH
    Vitamin D stimulates estrogen and progesterone production by the placenta
    Vitamin D stimulates progesterone and estrogen production in the ovary
    Excess Vitamin D reduces the function of the corpus luteum and decreases progesterone
  • Effect of Vitamin D Levels on Intrapartum Epidural Consumption Oct 2014 presentation
    12 mg of Epidural for average vitamin D = 41 ng,
    18 mg of Epidural for average vitamin D = 26 ng
    Much less pain among the 93 women who had high levels of vitamin D.
    Note that scheduled cesareans were excluded from the analysis


The Placenta, an Afterthought No Longer New York Times Dec 2018

  • "An ephemeral organ, long dismissed merely as afterbirth, increasingly is viewed as critical to understanding the health and course of pregnancy."
  • "Ninety percent of the placenta is made up of cells not from the mother but from the fetus."
  • "As the placental beachhead grows, its cells specialize to do the work of heart, lungs, liver and kidneys until the fetus can fend for itself. Groups of cells exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide; provide nutrients and hormones; protect the fetus from harmful stress, germs and chemicals; and remove waste"
  • "Male fetuses typically are larger than females throughout gestation, but they also have higher rates of spontaneous abortions, stillbirth, premature birth and neurodevelopmental conditions."

Human Placenta Project
Previously had studied placenta after birth.
Now studying the placenta as early as 1st trimester - to detect and hopefully avoid problems

Short url = http://is.gd/dpregnancy

Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D        
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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
10959 The Placenta, an Afterthought No Longer - The New York Times.pdf admin 03 Dec, 2018 547.96 Kb 1018
10671 Pregnancy related mortality - CDC.jpg admin 13 Oct, 2018 38.32 Kb 3230
3437 Preterm birth 10 percent WHO 2009.pdf admin 23 Dec, 2013 439.61 Kb 2485
2994 70,000 IU.pdf admin 13 Sep, 2013 479.99 Kb 2472
264 Vitamin D preconception to birth - 2010.gif admin 26 Oct, 2010 9.17 Kb 5152
194 Knox on breastfeeding - 2010.gif admin 27 Sep, 2010 18.51 Kb 7796
193 Gum pockets vs vitamin D Hollis slides 2010 - 28.gif admin 26 Sep, 2010 15.53 Kb 4895
192 Finland vitamin D for infants - Wagner 2010 pg 31.gif admin 26 Sep, 2010 11.25 Kb 18105
191 6400 vs 400 IU during pregnancy - Wagner April 2010 pg 84.gif admin 26 Sep, 2010 12.28 Kb 23583
190 2000 and 4000 IU during pregnancy - Wagner April 2010 pg 51.gif admin 26 Sep, 2010 25.84 Kb 2656