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Overview Vitamin K and Vitamin D

Vitamin K2 is similar to D3 in many ways

  1. Both vitamins were initially confused with its lesser form (D2 ==> D3, K1 ==> K2)
  2. Both vitamins appear to influence health in large number of ways
  3. Both vitamins in the body are about 1/10 that of a century ago
    Example: Grass-fed beef has a lot more K2, D3, and Magnesium
  4. Need very little of both vitamins: <1 milligram daily
  5. When Vitamin D3 is increased, it appears that Vitamin K2 should also be increased
  6. Vitamin K2 understanding and research is about 20 years behind that of Vitamin D3
    One of the reasons: No simple blood test for K2 as of Jan 2020

Table of contents

K2 with some K1 - - - - -

Importance of K2

  • Makes for harder bones and softer arteries
  • Appears to increase the effectiveness (Bioavailability?) of Vitamin D by 10%

Perspective of the importance of Vit D and co-factors to health
Importance to Health VDW10426

See Vitamin D Life category: Vitamin K 152 items and it's associations to other categories

Table of contents

See Vitamin D Life

Suggestion to restrict the use of warafin (from coumarin) as a Vitamin K antagonist for strokes - Jan 2018

This appears to be a complete reversal from the standard of practice
Urgent reversal of vitamin K antagonists the BMJ Jan 2018
What you need to know

  • There are three options for urgent reversal of anticoagulant effects of vitamin K antagonists such as warfarin:
  • vitamin K,
    • prothrombinase complex concentrate, and
    • fresh frozen plasma
  • The reversal of vitamin K antagonists can be monitored with the international normalised ratio (INR) to measure clotting time
  • Prevention of bleeding is key: the patient’s INR should be kept in the desired therapeutic range, and extra INR checks are needed during illness and when starting a new medication that may interfere with warfarin’s effect

PDF is behind a paywall doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j5424

Vitamin K deficiency is only important at low ievels of Vitamin D - GRH 2020


Many benefit of vitamin K - Dr. Berg video- Fall 2022

11 minute video

The Ultimate Vitamin K2 Resource- Chris Masterjohn Dec 2016

Nice overview
Statins restrict K1 conversion to K2
All animals convert K1 or K2-M7 to K2-M4 for use
Recommends 100 micrograms - which no mention of increasing dose with higher levels of vitamin D
Good review of the commercial K combinations available on the market - here is just a portion of it - without hyperlinks

  • Life Extension Super K With Advanced K2 Complex — 1 mg K1, 1 mg MK-4, 200 μg mK-7, with an additional 10 mg ascorbic acid from 25 mg ascorbyl palmitate. Sold by iHerb ($22.50) but cheaper at Amazon ($17.93). Eligible for Prime and Amazon Fresh. 20 cents per capsule, 3 cents per day to average 200 μg/d. Beware of the subscription button when buying on Amazon. The vitamins are synthetic. According to Life Extension, the MK-7 is synthesized in China and is bioidentical, but they could not verify for me that it is 100% all-trans, which is the natural form. The reason I do not advocate this supplement is because the high dose of K1 adds little value, and although there is no well-characterized risk of high doses, it is possible that multiple milligrams per day of vitamin K (this supplement itself provides 2.2 mg per capsule) may unnecessarily tax the body’s antioxidant system.
  • Maxx Labs Vitamin K2 Complex — 500 μg MK-4, 100 μg MK-7, 100 mg calcium from calcium citrate. 20 cents per capsule, 7 cents per day to average 200 μg/d. $17.98 on Amazon, where it is fulfilled by Amazon and eligible for Prime. Be careful to avoid the subscription setting if you only want to order one bottle. Free of GMOs and allergens.
  • Innovix Full-Spectrum K2 — 500 μg MK-4, 100 μg MK-7. 24 cents per capsule, 8 cents per day to average 200 μg/d. $21.97 on Amazon, fulfilled by Amazon and eligible for Prime. Both forms of K2 in this product appear to be synthetic but bioidentical. It contains caramel coloring derived from non-GMO corn, a potential source of allergens. I consider this the best choice for a mixed MK-4/MK-7 supplement.
  • Country Life Vegan K2 Strawberry Smooth Melt — 500 μg total K2. MK-4 and MK-7 in unidentified proportions. 19 cents per smooth melt, 8 cents per day to average 200 μg/d. Almost identical prices on Amazon ($16.65) and iHerb ($16.67). On Amazon, it is fulfilled by Amazon and eligible for Prime. It is not clear where the vitamins come from or whether the MK-7 is bioidentical. It is free of GMOs, soy, and other common allergens.
  • Pure Encapsulations Synergy K — 1,000 IU Vitamin D3, 1 mg MK-4, 500 μg K1, 45 μg MK-7. 47 cents per capsule, 9 cents per day to average 200 μg/d. $56 on Amazon, where it is fulfilled by Amazon and eligible for Prime. Free of GMOs and allergens. Taken to yield an average close to 200 μg K2, the amounts of vitamin D (200 IU) and MK-7 (9 μg) are rather low compared to the Innovix Full-Spectrum K2 (20 μg MK-7) or the Thorne Research D/K2 (1,000 IU vitamin D), but the unique combination of the three vitamins may be optimal for some people whose nutritional needs fit it just right.

MK-4 Supplements

  • Thorne Research Vitamin K2 — 1 mg MK-4. 5 cents per drop, 1 cent per day to average 200 μg/d. Similarly priced at Amazon ($64.62) and iHerb ($64.65), and if ordered on Amazon it is fulfilled by Amazon and eligible for Prime. It is dissolved in a base of nothing but MCT oil and mixed tocopherolsd. This is the least expensive option in the list.
  • Thorne Research D/K2— 1000 IU vitamin D and 200 μg MK-4. 4 cents per day to obtain 200 μg from each two-drop serving. Although available on Amazon from third party shippers at prices ranging from $36-$70, it is not eligible for Prime and it is much less expensive ($23.70) through iHerb. This is a great option for someone who also needs to improve their vitamin D status. When compared to the Thorne Vitamin K2, it has the added benefit that the dose of MK-4 is smaller so it is easier to take a consistent dose of 200 μg every day. However, don’t be fooled by the price difference: the bottle costs less (hardly more than a third the price), but on a per 200 μg basis it is four times as expensive.
  • Superior Source Sublingual MK-4 Tablets — 500 μg MK-4. 29 cents per tablet and 12 cents per day to average 200 μg per day. Similar price from Amazon ($17.59), where it is shipped and sold by Amazon as well as eligible for Prime, and iHerb ($17.79). The company claims that the sublingual formulation offers superior absorption but I’m not aware of any specific evidence of this. It contains lactose, so should be avoided by people with lactose intolerance.

Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox - 2012 book

Some suppliers of large amounts of K2

  • Thorne liquid 10 drops = 1000 mcg K2 (MK4) and 5,000 IU vitamin D3
    125 servings (of 10 drops) per $22 bottle
  • Bone restore with K2 Life Extension (improved)
    4 capsules: Vitamin D3 1000 IU (low) ; MK-7 200 mcg, Ca 700 mg, Magnesium (citrate) 300 mg, Zinc 2 mg, Manganese 1 mg, Silicon 5 mg, Boron 3 mg
  • Natures Life Vitamin K-2 Menatetrenone — 5000 mcg - 60 Tablets $17
    Comment by admin of Vitamin D Life: taking this about once every 4 days with vitamin D, and hoping that the half-life of K2 is long enough

See on web

Benefits of vitamin D: from http://tinyurl.com/mercola311


3 Mortality and Low Vitamin K studies

Items in VitaminDWIKI in both categories Vitamin K and Mortality are listed here:

- - - - - - - - - - - -
Combination of Low Vitamin D AND Low Vitamin K increased mortality by 1.5X Aug 2020, FREE PDF
- - - - -
Cardiovascular Mortality much worse if lacking Vitamin K2 from MenaQ7.com

The above is their advertisement
- - - - - -
Vitamin K1 is Inversely Associated with Mortality Risk, K2 is also good - March 2014
Dietary Intake of Vitamin K Is Inversely Associated with Mortality Risk.
J Nutr. 2014 Mar 19
Juanola-Falgarona M1, Salas-Salvadó J, Martínez-González MA, Corella D, Estruch R, Ros E, Fitó M, Arós F, Gómez-Gracia E, Fiol M, Lapetra J, Basora J, Lamuela-Raventós RM, Serra-Majem L, Pintó X, Muñoz MA, Ruiz-Gutiérrez V, Fernández-Ballart J, Bulló M.

Vitamin K has been related to cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, data on total mortality are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary intake of different types of vitamin K and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 7216 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (median follow-up of 4.8 y). Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary vitamin K intake was calculated annually using the USDA food composition database and other published sources. Deaths were ascertained by an end-point adjudication committee unaware of the dietary habits of participants after they had reviewed medical records and linked up to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the RR of mortality.
Energy-adjusted baseline dietary phylloquinone intake was inversely associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality after controlling for potential confounders (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96; and HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.90, respectively).

In longitudinal assessments, individuals who increased their intake of phylloquinone or menaquinone during follow-up had a lower risk of

  • cancer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; and HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.64, respectively) and
  • all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73; and HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.73, respectively)

than individuals who decreased or did not change their intake.
Also, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86).
However, no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.29).
An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular, cancer, or all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk.
This trial was registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639, PMID: 24647393

Natto starter kit

Make your own Vitamin K2 / Natto at home from a starter kit
Called Natto in Japan and Thau-nao in Thailand this cultured whole bean soy food has a strong, somewhat persistent, unique flavor.
The bacteria, Bacillus subtilis var natto, that culture the cooked soybeans make a sticky, viscous polymer during the 6-12 hours of incubation.
This creates wispy threads evident when the cultured soybeans are pulled apart.

A good source of protein, this robust soyfood adds zest to any grain or noodle dish, soup or sandwich.
A little goes a long way, so what is not intended for use in a day or two may be easily frozen.
Our Natto starter, imported from Japan, has a 6 month or more shelf life.

Natto Starter Kit:
This 11gm packet contains culture directions, recipes, and enough spore to start 3 batches of natto, each making 5 cups or 1.5 pounds.
$3.00 + $3.00 shipping in the US. As of July 2011 the supplier only accepts check of money order, no on-line sales
- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Cees Vermeer (64) is Associate Professor of Biochemistry at the Maastricht University and since 10 years also CEO of VitaK, a spin-off company focusing on research on vitamin K and vitamin K-dependent proteins. VitaK employs 14 researchers (Ph.D., MSc, and BSc) who are all working on a) clinical trials to demonstrate health effects of vitamin K, b) development of new biomarkers based on vitamin K-dependent proteins and c) analysis of K-vitamins in foods and body fluids. Cees Vermeer has been the supervisor of 16 Ph.D. students and is an author in over 300 papers in the international scientific press. VitaK is specialized in bone and cardiovascular health and has a long-standing R&D collaboration with NattoPharma; we have demonstrated the quality and health effects of MenaQ7 in several independent clinical trials and also act as consultant for scientific and regulatory affairs as well as for designing and defending IPR.

Dr. Vermeer studied Biochemistry at Leiden, where he also presented his Ph.D. thesis (1974) on the initiation of protein biosynthesis in E coli. In 1975 Dr. Vermeer was appointed at the Department of Biochemistry of the Universiteit Maastricht, where he has founded the Division on Vitamin K In 1984 he was appointed as an Associate Professor of Biochemistry and Principal Investigator at CARIM. In 1994 Dr. Vermeer was appointed as a temporary adviser of the World Health Organization and in 2001 he received the honorary title of Doctor honoris causa at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Iuliu Hatieganu" of the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Moreover, in 2001 Dr. Vermeer founded the company VitaK BV, where he became the first CEO of the company.

Slide show for Vita K from Dec 2010 is attached at the bottom of this page

The following are some of the slides


Cees Vermeer, PhD; Associate Professor of Biochemistry; BioPartner Center Maastricht; c.vermeer at bioch.unimaas.nl

RCT 1500 micrograms daily K2 preserves bone - 2013

Low-dose vitamin K2 (MK-4) supplementation for 12 months improves bone metabolism and prevents forearm bone loss in postmenopausal Japanese women May 2013
6 month Random Controlled Trial: Control group with no K-2 had decreased forearm BMD, 1.5-mg K-2 MK-4 has no decrease

Appears that Vitamin K is needed to prevent bone loss - 2012

Vitamin K-Dependent Carboxylation of Osteocalcin: Friend or Foe?
Caren M. Gundberg3, caren.gundberg at yale.edu, Jane B. Lian4, and Sarah L. Booth (see also below) 5
3Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT
4Department of Cell Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA; and
5Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA
Adv Nutr March 2012 Adv Nutr vol. 3: 149-157, 2012

Osteocalcin originates from osteoblastic synthesis and is deposited into bone or released into circulation, where it correlates with histological measures of bone formation. The presence of 3 vitamin K-dependent ? carboxyglutamic acid residues is critical for osteocalcin’s structure, which appears to regulate the maturation of bone mineral. In humans, the percentage of the circulating osteocalcin that is not ?-carboxylated (percent ucOC) is used as a biomarker of vitamin K status. In contrast, when ucOC is not corrected for total osteocalcin, the interpretation of this measure is confounded by osteoblastic activity, independent of vitamin K. Observational studies using percent ucOC have led to the conclusion that vitamin K insufficiency leads to age-related bone loss. However, clinical trials do not provide overall support for the suggestion that vitamin K supplementation of the general population will reduce bone loss or fracture risk. More recently, results from in vitro and in vivo studies using animal models indicate that ucOC is an active hormone with a positive role in glucose metabolism. By inference, vitamin K, which decreases ucOC, would have a detrimental effect. However, in humans this hypothesis is not supported by the limited data available, nor is it supported by what has been established regarding osteocalcin chemistry. In summary, the specific function of osteocalcin in bone and glucose metabolism has yet to be elucidated.

Dr. Sarah Booth Jan 2014

Video from Grassroots
PDF including all images is attached at the bottom of this page

here are some of the images


Her 2008 PDF is attached at the bottom of this page

MK7 is a natural form and is more effective in the body and teeth

Accumulation in the serum
The long half-life of MK-7 results in significantly better accumulation compared to MK-4. Research shows that in only 8 days MK-7 has 6 times better absorption. Hence, smaller quantities and less frequent intakes of MK-7 is sufficient in order to supply all of the tissues.

MK7 more effective
MK-7 is much more effective than MK-4 at doses that do not exceed the present recommended intake for vitamin K. MK-4 has to be applied in very high pharmacological doses (milligrams) to demonstrate benefits for bone and heart health. In case of MK-7, doses in micrograms – 1000x less - are sufficient for significant bioactive effect.

Vitamin K2 is good for cardiovascular - July 2015

 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Dr Price in 1930's found people with good teeth consumed 10X more fat-soluable vitamins 8 minute video

Citizen petition to increase Vitamin K2 to 200 micrograms/day - Feb 2016

Citizen Petition asking the National Academy of Sciences to set a designated reference index for vitamin K2 of 200 micrograms/day   Dr. David Cundiff

Vitamin K2 content of foods (US - 2015)

 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) Supplementation and its Benefits in Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, and Cancer - 2016

 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

...Differences between Vitamin K1 and K2 in Health and Disease - 2019

 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Natto, which is a good source of Vitamin K2, treats nasal polyps in sinus - Feb 2018

Nattokinase for Nasal Polyps and as a Mucolytic Green Med Info.
Note: The word VITAMIN does not occur once in the article.
There are many articles on the web about Vitamin K2 reducing nasal polyps

K1 compared to K2 - Sept 2018


k-vitamins.com - learned of it Jan 2023

lots of information
Founder was saved by Vitamin K disolving plaques in his arteries
huge amount of Vitamin K information
He also sells a very high dosage combination Vitamin K pill
Vitamin K1 (5 mg) , MK4 (25 mg) , and MK7 (0.5 mg), and Astaxanthin (2 mg)
Research tab has


Vitamin D Life became aware of this nice site in Sept 2019
Site Table of Contents
Vitamin K Myths

  • 1.Myth: Vitamin K is a single vitamin.
  • 2.Myth: I eat a lot of green leafy vegetables, so I am getting my vitamin K2.
  • 3.Myth: With all the green leafy vegetables I eat, I am getting the benefits of vitamin K2.
  • 4.Myth: I feed my children packaged cheese because I want to make sure they get plenty of vitamin K2.
  • 5.Myth: I can follow adequate daily intake levels of vitamin K so I am sure I am getting enough vitamin K2.
  • 6.Myth: I am taking a blood-thinning medication so I absolutely should not eat foods with vitamin K or take vitamin K supplements.
  • 7.Myth: I feel great so I am definitely not vitamin K2 deficient.


Rare, except in newborns.|

Daily Value (RDA)

90 micrograms for women
120 micrograms for men|
Not yet established, but experts recommend 100 to 200 micrograms of K2 daily.


No known toxicity if taken at recommended levels.|
No known toxicity if taken at recommended levels.

Deficiency symptoms


  • Bruises
  • Increased bleeding time
  • Small blood clots under nails
  • Increased bleeding in mucous membranes.


  • Weak bones
  • Increased plaque deposits along gumline
  • Increase in cavities
  • Arterial calcification
Causes of deficiency


  • Lack of green leafy vegetables in diet
  • Anticoagulant medications (Warfarin/Coumadin)
  • Antibiotics
  • Fat malabsorption disorders.

Lack of fermented foods and organ meats in diet.

Circulation in blood

|Brief (hours)|
Prolonged (days).
Due to Vitamin K2's longer molecule, it is transported by different carriers in the blood than K1 and therefore, to different locations in the body. 

Effect on bone health


Effect on heart health


Present in brain

The MK-4 form of Vitamin K2 is the predominant form found in the brain, but we don't yet know what it does there. 

What happens after consumption?


  • Vitamin K1 travels to liver more effectively than to bones.
  • Liver uses Vitamin K1 to activate proteins needed for blood clotting.


Life Extension: K2 prescribed in Japan to prevent bone loss for several decades - March 2022

 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Vitamin K and Cardiovascular 26 studies

Vitamin K and Bone 28 studies

Vitamin K and Calcium 16 studies

Vitamin K and Falls/Fracture 9 studies

Vitamin K and Kidney 4 studies

Vitamin K and Magnesium 26 studies

All 22 associations with the category Vitamin K

Vitamin K associations with: Bone - Health 28;  Cardiovascular 25;  Magnesium 23;  Top news 16;  Omega-3 15;  Calcium 14;  Vitamin A 11;  Falls and Fractures 8;  Vitamin B12 7;  Osteoporosis 7;  Seniors 7;  Boron 6;  Zinc 6;  Virus 6;  Supplement 6;  Vitamin C 5;  Diabetes 5;  Iron 5;  Iodine 4;  Cancer 4;  Meta-analysis 4;  Kidney 4     As of Nov 2022        Click below to see detailed current associations

K1 and K1 compared to K2 - - - - - - -

Overview of K1 vs K2 controversy

 K1K2 M-4K2 M-7
Supplement Synthetic/NaturalSyntheticSyntheticNatural
Food SourceGreen leafy vegetablesCheese, animal fat, egg yolk,
natto, free-range lard
BoneSlight ability to activate osteocalcinStrong ability to build strong bones
Duration in bodyDaysHoursdays
Recycled in bodyYes - so not need much
deficiency is uncommon
Not recycled
Ability to activate MGP and reduced arterial plaqueSlightStrong
Amount needed for health90 ugnot specified 90 -300 -1000ug
Japanese have 45,000 ug

Vitamin K1 = phylloquinone = phytomenadione = phytonadione

(memory aid: K1 = P = Plant)
Vitamin K2 = menaquinone = menatetrenone

Both K1 and K2 promote blood clotting (Koagulations vitamin, from German)

Controversy, but appears that

  • K2 better than K1 at building bones
  • Coumadin (warfarin) blocks all forms of vitamin K
  • 2007 – vitamin K2 is the most bioavailable, bioactive and longest lasting form of vitamin K
  • Extensive interaction between Vitamin K, Vitamin D, and Calcium (bones, prostate, arteries, . . . )

Vitamins K1 and K2 - Schwalfenberg 2017

Vitamins K1 and K2: The Emerging Group of Vitamins Required for Human Health - 2017
 Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life

Medical studies - Vitamin K in title: 8,000 as of Feb 2023

https://is.gd/kpubmed PubMed
"vitamin k" OR "vitamin k1" OR "vitamin k2" OR "Vitamin K(2)" OR phylloquinone OR phytomenadione
OR phytonadione OR menaquinone OR menatetrenone in Title

  • Vitamin K2 Needs an RDI Separate from Vitamin K1 2020 Jun doi: 10.3390/nu12061852. FREE PDF
  • Calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K2, and magnesium supplementation and skeletal health - 2020 Oct doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.05.020
  • Vitamin K2-a neglected player in cardiovascular health: a narrative review 2021 Nov: 10.1136/openhrt-2021-001715 free pdf
  • Vitamin K Deficiency Jan 2022 free book
  • Vitamin K Jan 2022 Free book
  • Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review 2018 Feb doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.11.020
  • Role of Vitamin K in Intestinal Health 2022 Jan doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.791565. eCollection 2021. FREE PDF
  • The Medical Benefits of Vitamin K2 on Calcium-Related Disorders 2021 Feb doi: 10.3390/nu13020691.FREE PDF
  • 2017 Prevalence and Effects of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency: The PREVEND Study
     Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life
  • 2017Vitamin K and bone
     Download the PDF from Vitamin D Life
  • 2017 Effect of vitamin K2 on type 2 diabetes mellitus: A review - DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2017.11.020
  • 2016|What Is Vitamin K2 and Does It Have an Impact on Bone Health?
  • 2014 K2 reduces Osteoporosis for postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis]
  • 2012 Vitamin k and the nervous system: an overview of its actions -full text on-line
  • 2012 Vitamin K-antagonists create arterial plaque. Vermeer full text on-line
  • 2012 The role of vitamin k in soft-tissue calcification. -full text on-line Vermeer
  • 2012 Vitamin k status and vascular calcification: evidence from observational and clinical studies -full text on-line
  • 2012 Vitamin K, an emerging nutrient in brain function
  • 2012 Vitamin K: the effect on health beyond coagulation - an overview -PDF at bottom of this page (Vermeer)
  • 2011 Conclusion: A low intake of vitamin K1, but not K2, was associated with an increased risk of hip fractures.
    This is the opposite of current belief
  • 2011 Bone quality in diabetics improved with vitamin K2
  • 2011 Vitamin K, bone fractures, and vascular calcifications in chronic kidney disease: an important but poorly studied relationship.

Clinical Trials for "vitamin K" 568 as Feb 2023
  • Effect of Vitamin K Supplementation on Markers of Diabetes Risk in Overweight Children
  • The Efficacy of Vitamin K2 n Human Osteoporosis, Blood-vessel Calcification and Sclerosis
  • Vitamin K-absorption From Dairy
  • The Effects of Vitamin K2 Supplementation on the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification (VitaK-CAC)
  • Beneficial Effects of Long Term Menaquinone-7: 180 µg menaquinone-7 daily for three years; Bone Loss & Arteriosclerosis
  • Comparison of Absorption of Vitamin K2: softgel capsules containing 180 µg MK-7 and 750 IU vitamin D3 + 120 µg MK-4
  • The Effect of Vitamin K2 on Bone Turnover

Green Medical Info has many medical references for Vitamin K1 and K2

Green Medical Info

  • Menaquinone-7, a form of vitamin K2, may prevent age-related bone loss.
  • Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, cardiac mortality, aortic calcification and all-cause mortality.
  • Vitamin K may reduce the risk for artherosclerosis.
  • Vitamin K may be effective in preventing and treating osteoporosis and arterial calcification.
  • Evidence shows that deficiency of Vit. K may contribute to the development of cardiovascular plaque (increased intima media thickness)
    and supplementation may reverse or forestall the process of calcification.
  • Vitamin K supplementation inhibits the progression of coronary artery calcification in older men and women.
  • High dietary menaquinone (Vitamin K2) intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification.
  • Vitamin K(2) may represent a new agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Vitamin K supplementation in postmenopausal women wih osteopenia appears to protect against bone fractures and cancers.
  • Vitamin K1 and K2 exhibit anti-fracture activity.
  • The intake of natto, an excellent source of vitamin K2, may reduce bone fracture risk.
  • Menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) supplementation increases osteocalcin carboxylation associated
  • High-dose vitamin K supplementation reduces fracture incidence in postmenopausal women.
  • Vitamin K2 (MK-4) may be beneficial in the maintenance of bone health in postmenopausal women.
  • Supplementation with phytonadione (Vitamin K1) and menaquinone (Vitamin K2) , particularly menaquinone-4, is associated with increased BMD and reduced fracture incidence.
  • vitamin Vitamin (2) works synergistically with alendronate on improving both osteocalcin carboxylation and BMD of femoral neck in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
  • Low vitamin K status is associated with abnormal cartilage, bone mineralizations and osteoarthritis in the hand and knee.
  • Vitamin K3 induces programmed cell death in breast cancer cells.
  • Vitamin K2 inhibits cell growth in cholangiocellular carcinoma cell lines.
  • Pharmacological Actions : Apoptotic, Cell cycle arrest
  • Supplementation of vitamin K antagonists with 100 mcg of vitamin K improves stability of anticoagulant therapy and reduces side effects.
  • High dietary intake of vitamin K rich foods is associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease.
  • Research indicates that vitamin K2 intake reduces coronary heart disease events.
  • A high vitamin K2 (menaquinone) intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease.
  • Vitamins K2 and D3 have a protective effect on prednisolone-induced loss of bone mineral density in the lumbar spine.
  • High dose vitamin K is efficacious in correcting vitamin K deficiency in cystic fibrosis.
  • Vitamin K2 may improve bone quality in type 2 diabetes.
  • Low levels of vitamin D and K are highly prevalent and independent of overall malnutrition in the institutionalized elderly.
  • Vitamin K2 induces cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death in gastric cancer cell lines.
  • Levels of menaquinone-7 and vitamin D are lower in those with hip fracture, indicating they may have a role in fracture prevention.

Higher Vitamin K1 intake reduces type 2 diabetes risk by over 30 percent in a 20-year study - May 2023

https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgad293 FREE PDF

Overview Vitamin K and Vitamin D        
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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
19077 K tab.jpg admin 08 Jan, 2023 19.00 Kb 1119
18898 Vit K content of foods US 2015.pdf admin 01 Dec, 2022 1.64 Mb 2257
17064 LEF K2 March 2022_compressed.pdf admin 19 Feb, 2022 3.40 Mb 422
16920 Vitamins K1 and K2 -Emerging Group.pdf admin 24 Jan, 2022 1.33 Mb 449
16445 Vit D Vit K.jpg admin 18 Oct, 2021 74.97 Kb 3139
12686 VitK2dot org.jpg admin 27 Sep, 2019 17.39 Kb 7321
12669 Vit K1 and K2.pdf admin 25 Sep, 2019 992.62 Kb 993
11061 K1 vs K2.jpg admin 16 Dec, 2018 53.98 Kb 8778
9311 Vit K and Bone.pdf admin 05 Feb, 2018 686.36 Kb 1427
9310 Prevalence and Effects of Functional Vitamin K Insufficiency - The PREVEND Study.pdf admin 05 Feb, 2018 593.85 Kb 1493
8062 Benefits of Menaquinone Supplementation - 2016.pdf admin 03 Jun, 2017 791.26 Kb 2132
6405 Cardio F3 MK-7.jpg admin 16 Feb, 2016 22.05 Kb 17268
6404 Cardio F2.jpg admin 16 Feb, 2016 24.71 Kb 17185
6403 K2 cardiovascular July 2015.pdf admin 16 Feb, 2016 148.98 Kb 2264
5326 MK efficacy.jpg admin 16 Apr, 2015 12.64 Kb 19635
5325 MK accumulation.jpg admin 16 Apr, 2015 19.12 Kb 20236
3542 Effect_of_Vitamin_K_Supplementation Booth April 2008.pdf admin 16 Jan, 2014 464.95 Kb 1951
3541 Vit K reduce arterial calcification.jpg admin 15 Jan, 2014 41.07 Kb 26112
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